Safety Recommendations

​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​The NTSB issues safety recommendations to address specific safety concerns uncovered during investigations and to specify actions to help prevent similar accidents from occurring in the future. Safety recommendations are our most important product because they alert government, industry, and the public to the critical changes that are needed to prevent transportation accidents and crashes, reduce injuries, and save lives.


  • ​issue recommendations to the organizations best able to take corrective action, such as the US DOT and its modal administrations, the Coast Guard, other federal and state agencies, manufacturers, operators, labor unions, and industry and trade organizations.
  • issue safety recommendations at any point during the investigation of transportation accidents and in connection with safety studies.
  • monitor the progress of action to implement each recommendation until it is closed, which usually takes several years. 

Find Our Recommendations

CAROL (Case Analysis and Reporting Online) is our search tool for investigations and safety recommendations across all modes. CAROL includes all NTSB recommendations. See the Field Descriptions​ page for specific information about safety recommendations data fields.

Recommendation Spotlight

Each month, we shine the spotlight on a few recommendations that have been successfully implemented (closed acceptable action) and are helping to further safety. These recommendations span all modes of transportation and recommendation recipients. Visit the Recommendation Spotlight Archive​ to see previous safety wins.

We urge recommendation recipients to keep us informed of the progress on implementing recommendations. ​​If you do, you may see your recommendation spotlighted here. ​Read more about responding to our safety recommendations.

​​Embraer, FAA Address Potential Cause of Several Runway Excursions​​​​​​​

Between 2011 and 2013, the NTSB investigated and participated in foreign-led investigations of several runway excursions involving Embraer EMB-145 airplanes that unexpectedly veered off the runway during landing due to uncommanded steering anomalies.

During our investigations, we discovered Embraer pilots were using binder brackets to clip their open navigation chart binders on the Embraer-installed chart holder, which is designed to hold individual charts and located directly above the steering tiller.

When the binder, about 2 inches thick and weighing several pounds, dislodged from the (unauthorized) bracket, it would strike the tiller, engage the steering system, and cause the plane to veer off the pilot’s intended landing path.

The NTSB recommended (A-17-3) Embraer inform its operators and pilots not to clip binders to the chart holder due to the potentially hazardous condition the act poses. We also recommended (A-17-5) the FAA reinforce Embraer’s outreach by issuing a safety alert to Embraer pilots and operators.​​  ​​Those communications were completed, and the NTSB recently closed its recommendations to Embraer and the FAA and classified them as acceptable. 


​Rail Association Calls on Members to Hold Employee Safety Briefings on Lessons Identified from Tragic Collision

​The NTSB issues safety recommendations to those entities that can take action to prevent the recurrence of similar transportation accidents and incidents. A fast and effective method of reaching our affected audiences with a safety message is through their trade associations and professional societies.

In 2021, the NTSB issued a recommendation to the American Short Line and Regional Railroad Association (ASLRRA) asking it to share with its members the circumstances of a 2021 collision that killed a 19-year-old train conductor, who was riding on the rear platform of a train slowly backing down the tracks (also known as shoving).

When the conductor’s rail car entered a highway-railroad grade crossing, an 18-wheeler struck it, pinning the conductor between the train and the truck. The grade crossing had warning signs but no mechanical gates to prevent crossing. Our investigation found that the truck driver did not heed the warning signs and failed to stop when entering the grade crossing.

In response to our recommendation (R-23-021​), ASLRRA asked its members in its newsletter to read the details of the NTSB investigation report, review their procedures related to shoving movements, and communicate them to their employees in an upcoming safety briefing. In the news article, the association also highlighted to its members: “The NTSB recommends that railroads require ground protection at highway-railroad grade crossings equipped only with flashing lights or passive warning devices.” 

 The NTSB recently closed the ASLRRA recommendation and classified the association's publication of an article in its member newsletter as acceptable.

​Safety Recommendations At a Glance

We have issued over 15,400 safety Recommendations since the agency was established in 1967.

​​Total safety recommendations by mode​

​​​​Total safety recommendations by Recipient


2022 Safety Recommendation Statistics​

​​​Issued Safety Recomm​endations
​​Issued Urgent Safety Recommendations
​​Closed Acceptable Recommendations ​​​
​Urgent Closed Recommendations ​
​​Closed Unacceptable Recommendations​

​Each recommendation issued is reported as one recommendation, regardless of the number of recipients. Because some recommendations are issued to more than one recipient, however, recommendations closed are reported by the number of recipients for whom a recommendation was closed during the year.

​U​pdated February 7, 2024​​