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Safety Recommendation Details

Safety Recommendation A-95-086
Details
Synopsis: ON 11/22/94, AT 2203 CENTRAL STANDARD TIME, TRANS WORLD AIRLINES (TWA) FLIGHT 427, A MCDONNELL DOUGLAS DC-9-82 (MD-82), N954U, COLLIDED WITH A CESSNA 441, N441KM, AT THE INTERSECTION OF RUNWAY 30R & TAXIWAY REMEO, AT THE LAMBERT-ST. LOUIS INTERNATIONAL AIRPORT (STL) IN BRIDGETON, MISSOURI. THE MD-82 WAS OPERATING AS A REGULARLY SCHEDULED PASSENGER FLIGHT ROM STL TO DENVER, COLORADO. THE FLIGHT WAS CONDUCTED UNDER THE PROVISIONS OF TITLE 14 CODE OF FEDERAL REGULATIONS (CFR) PART 121. THERE WERE 132 PASSENGERS, FIVE FLIGHT ATTENDANTS, & THREE FLIGHTCREW MEMBERS ABOARD THE AIRPLANE. THE MD-82 SUSTAINED SUBSTANTIAL DAMAGE DURING THE COLLISION. THE CESSNA 441, OPERATED BY SUPERIOR AVIATION, INC., AS A 14 CFR PART 91 POSITIONING FLIGHT, WAS DESTROYED. THE COMMERCIAL PILOT & THE PASSENGER, WHO WAS RATED AS A PRIVATE PILOT, WERE THE SOLE OCCUPANTS ON BOARD THE CESSNA & WERE KILLED. OF THE 140 PERSONS ON BOARD THE MD-82, EIGHT PASSENGERS SUSTAINED MINOR INJURIES DURING THE EVACUATION.
Recommendation: THE NTSB RECOMMENDS THAT THE FAA: REVISE THE FEDERAL AVIATION REGULATIONS TO REQUIRE PILOTS TO ILLUMINATE ALL TAXI, LANDING, & LOGO LIGHTS, OR OTHERWISE ENHANCE THE CONSPICUITY OF THEIR AIRCRAFT WHEN OPERATING ON AN ACTIVE RUNWAY (INCLUDING RUNWAY CROSSING POSITION-&-HOLD OPERATIONS).
Original recommendation transmittal letter: PDF
Overall Status: Closed - Acceptable Action
Mode: Aviation
Location: BRIDGETON, MO, United States
Is Reiterated: No
Is Hazmat: No
Is NPRM: No
Accident #: CHI95MA044AB
Accident Reports: Runway Collision Involving Trans World Airlines Flight 427 and Superior Aviation Cessna 441
Report #: AAR-95-05
Accident Date: 11/22/1994
Issue Date: 9/21/1995
Date Closed: 3/5/1997
Addressee(s) and Addressee Status: FAA (Closed - Acceptable Action)
Keyword(s):

Safety Recommendation History
From: NTSB
To: FAA
Date: 3/5/1997
Response: BECAUSE THE FAA'S ACTION SATISFIES THE INTENT OF THE RECOMMENDATIONS, THE BOARD CLASSIFIES A-95-86 & -87 "CLOSED--ACCEPTABLE ACTION."

From: FAA
To: NTSB
Date: 12/5/1996
Response: THE FAA HAS ISSUED A FINAL RULE TO AMEND THE SYSTEMS & EQUIPMENT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS BASED ON EUROPEAN JOINT AVIATION REQUIREMENTS. SPECIFICALLY, THE FAA REVISED 14 CFR 91-209 TO REQUIRE THAT NO PERSON MAY OPERATE AN AIRCRAFT THAT IS EQUIPPED WITH AN ANTICOLLISION LIGHT SYSTEM UNLESS IT HAS LIGHTED ANTICOLLISION LIGHTS. HOWEVER, THE ANTICOLLISION LIGHTS NEED NOT BE LIGHTED WHEN THE PILOT-IN-COMMAND DETERMINES THAT BECAUSE OF OPERATING CONDITIONS IT WOULD BE IN THE INTEREST OF SAFETY TO TURN THE LIGHTS OFF.

From: FAA
To: NTSB
Date: 4/16/1996
Response: THE BOARD NOTES THAT WHILE THE FAA AGREES WITH THE INTENT OF THESE RECOMMENDATIONS, IT DOES NOT BELIEVE THAT RULEMAKING ACTION IS WARRANTED. THE FAA BELIEVES THAT REQUIRING PILOTS TO ILLUMINATE LANDING, TAXI, LOGO, & ANTICOLLISION/STROBE LIGHTS MAY CREATE OTHER SAFETY HAZARDS SUCH AS BLINDING OTHER TAXIING OR LANDING AIRCRAFT, RESULTING IN MOMENTARY SPATIAL DISORIENTATION. AS AN ALTERNATE ACTION, THE FAA WILL REVIEW CURRENTLY PUBLISHED FAA EDUCATIONAL & RESEARCH MATERIALS THAT ADDRESS RUNWAY INCURSIONS RELATING TO AIRPORT SURFACE OPERATIONS TO DETERMINE WHAT NEEDS TO BE REVISED. THE FAA WILL ALSO WORK WITH THE APPROPRIATE AVIATION INDUSTRY GROUPS TO DETERMINE WHAT ACTIONS NEED TO BE IMPLEMENTED TO PROVIDE SAFETY MEASURES DURING AIRCRAFT SURFACE OPERATIONS. THE FAA'S REVIEW OF THIS MATTER WILL BE COMPLETED BY JULY 1996, THE BOARD REMAINS CONCERNED ABOUT THE NEED FOR PILOTS TO ENHANCE THE CONSPICUITY OF THEIR AIRCRAFT WHEN OPERATING ON AN ACTIVE RUNWAY & IS DISAPPOINTED THAT THE FAA HAS DECLINED TO REVISE THE REGULATIONS TO REQUIRE SUCH ACTION. HOWEVER, IN LIGHT OF THE FAA'S STATED CONCERN REGARDING POSSIBLE UNDERSIRABLE SAFETY EFFECTS OF A REQUIREMENT FOR SUCH ACTION, & PENDING FAA REVIEW OF THIS MATTER FOR ALTERNATIVE MEASURES TO ENHANCE AIRCRAFT CONSPICUITY DURING SURFACE OPERATIONS & NOTIFICATION OF SUCH ALTERNATIVE MEASURES, A-95-86 IS CLASSIFIED "OPEN--ACCEPTABLE ALTERNATE RESPONSE," & A-95-87 IS CLASSIFIED "OPEN--ACCEPTABLE RESPONSE."

From: FAA
To: NTSB
Date: 12/12/1995
Response: THE FAA AGREES WITH THE INTENT OF THESE RECOMMENDATIONS BUT DOES NOT BELIEVE THAT RULEMAKING ACTION IS WARRANTED. THEY CONTEND THAT REQUIRING PILOTS TO ILLUMINATE SUCH LIGHTS MAY CREATE OTHER SAFETY HAZARDS SUCH AS BLINDING OTHER TAXIING OR LANDING AIRCRAFT & MOMENTARILY RESULTING IN SPATIAL DISORIENTATION. AS AN ALTERNATE ACTION THE FAA WILL REVIEW CURRENTLY PUBLISHED FAA EDUCATIONAL & RESEARCH MATERIALS THAT ADDRESS RUNWAY INCURSIONS TO DETERMINE WHAT REVISIONS NEED TO BE MADE, & WILL WORK WITH APPROPRIATE INDUSTRY GROUPS TO DETERMINE WHAT ACTIONS NEED TO BE IMPLEMENTED TO PROVIDE SAFETY MEASURES DURING AIRPORT SURFACE OPERATIONS. THEY EXPECT TO COMPLETE SUCH REVIEW BY JULY 1996. THEY WILL KEEP THE BOARD APPRISED OF PROGRESS.

From: NTSB
To: FAA
Date:
Response: At the 1990 Board meeting addressing the NTSB’s Most Wanted List of Transportation Safety Improvements (MWL), the Board voted to place Safety Recommendations A-86-33, A-86-40 and A-86-42 on the Federal MWL under the issue category “Runway Incursions/ Ground Collisions of Aircraft.” On November 8, 2007 at the Board meeting addressing the Federal Most Wanted List of Transportation Safety Improvements the category’s name was changed to “Improve Runway Safety.” Since 1990, the Board has voted to include Safety Recommendations A-91-29, A-91-30, A-91-54 through A-91-58, A-91-110 through A-91-115, A-95-86, A-95-92, A-95-93, A-95-97, A-00-66, A-0067, A-00-68, and A-07-57 is this category as well.