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Safety Recommendation Details

Safety Recommendation A-95-050
Details
Synopsis: On 7/2/94, about 1843 eastern daylight time, a Douglas DC-9-31, N954VJ, operated by USAIR, Inc., as flight 1016, collided with trees and a private residence near the Charlotte/ Douglas International Airport, Charlotte, North Carolina, shortly after the flightcrew executed a missed approach from the instrument landing system approach to runway 18R. The captain, first officer, one flight attendant, and one passenger received minor injuries. Two flight attendants and 14 passengers sustained serious injuries. The remaining 37 passengers received fatal injuries. The airplane was destroyed by impact forces and a postcrash fire. Instrument meteorological conditions prevailed at the time of the accident, and an instrument flight rules flight plan had been filed. Flight 1016 was being conducted under 14 code of federal regulations part 121 as a regularly scheduled passenger flight from Columbia, South Carolina, to Charlotte.
Recommendation: TO THE FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION: Develop standards for forward-facing, integrated child safety seats for transport category aircraft. (Supersedes Safety Recommendation A-90-078)
Original recommendation transmittal letter: PDF
Overall Status: Closed - Acceptable Alternate Action
Mode: Aviation
Location: CHARLOTTE, NC, United States
Is Reiterated: No
Is Hazmat: No
Is NPRM: No
Accident #: DCA94MA065
Accident Reports: Flight into Terrain during Missed Approach USAir 1016, DC-9-31, N954VJ
Report #: AAR-95-03
Accident Date: 7/2/1994
Issue Date: 5/16/1995
Date Closed: 2/25/2003
Addressee(s) and Addressee Status: FAA (Closed - Acceptable Alternate Action)
Keyword(s):

Safety Recommendation History
From: NTSB
To: FAA
Date: 2/25/2003
Response: On July 17, 2002, the FAA published Technical Standards Order (TSO) C100b, "Child Restraint Systems (CRS)," which adopts Society of Automotive Engineers Aerospace Standard (AS) 5276/l, "Performance Standard for Child Restraint Systems in Transport Category Airplanes." The Safety Board reviewed copies of the TSO and AS supplied by the FAA, and believes that issuance of these documents meets the intent of this recommendation in an acceptable alternate manner; therefore, the recommendation is classified "Closed--Acceptable Alternate Action."

From: FAA
To: NTSB
Date: 12/4/2002
Response: Letter Mail Controlled 12/13/2002 2:58:43 PM MC# 2021026 The Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), published Technical Standard Order (TSO) C100b, Child Restraint Systems (CRS), which adopts Aerospace Standard (AS) 5276/l, Performance Standard for Child Restraint Systems in Transport Category Airplanes. The AS defines the minimum performance standards and related qualification criteria for add-on child restraint systems which provide protection for small children in passenger seats of transport-category airplanes. I have enclosed a copy of the TSO and the AS for the Board's information. I consider the FAA's action to be completed on this safety recommendation.

From: NTSB
To: FAA
Date: 12/26/2001
Response: The draft TSO issued by the FAA adopts AS 5276/1; however, the Safety Board has been unable to obtain a copy of AS 5276/1, and one was not supplied by the FAA. Therefore, the Safety Board is unable to evaluate whether the standard will unnecessarily preclude a forward-facing, integrated child safety seat for transport-category aircraft from complying with AS 5276/1. The Board is pleased that the FAA is moving to adopt a TSO that includes a dynamic test requirement for child restraints. The Board requests that the FAA supply a copy of AS 5276/1, as referenced in the TSO. Pending issuance of the final TSO and evaluation of AS 5276/1, Safety Recommendation A-95-50 remains classified "Open--Acceptable Alternate Response."

From: FAA
To: NTSB
Date: 8/24/2001
Response: Letter Mail Controlled 09/10/2001 7:48:57 PM MC# 2010723: The Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), through the Society of Automotive Engineers (SAE) Seat Committee and Cabin Safety Provisions Committee, has determined that it is not feasible to develop an "integrated" child restraint system into a transport aircraft passenger seat. The consensus within the SAE committee was to develop an aerospace standard for child restraint systems designed for use on board aircraft. The Board agreed with this course of action and classified this safety recommendation in an "open acceptable alternate" status. The FAA has published Proposed Technical Standard Order (TSO) C100b, Child Restraint Systems (CRS), adopting Aerospace Standard 5276/1, Performance Standard for Child Restraint Systems in Transport Category Airplanes. The TSO is published in the Federal Register with a comment period ending October 15, 2001. I have enclosed a copy of the TSO for the Board's information. I will provide the Board with a copy of the final TSO and AS as it is issued.

From: NTSB
To: FAA
Date: 2/3/2000
Response: THE SAFETY BOARD IS DISAPPOINTED THAT THE SAE COMMITTEE DETERMINED THAT DEVELOPING A FORWARD-FACING, INTEGRATED CHILD SAFETY SEAT FOR TRANSPORT-CATEGORY AIRCRAFT IS NOT FEASIBLE. THE STATEMENT IN THE SAE MINUTES THAT "CURRENT SEATBACK DESIGNS AND SEAT ROW SPACING DO NOT HAVE ADEQUATE LONGITUDINAL DISTANCE TO ACCOMMODATE SUCH A CONCEPT" LEADS THE SAFETY BOARD TO BELIEVE THAT THE SAE COMMITTEE MEMBERS DISMISSED THE IDEA WITHOUT SERIOUS CONSIDERATION. ISSUES OF LONGITUDINAL SEAT SPACING AND CURRENT SEATBACK DESIGNS DO PRESENT A DESIGN CHALLENGE FOR AN INTEGRATED CHILD SEAT, BUT THE SAFETY BOARD DOES NOT BELIEVE THAT THEY ARE INSURMOUNTABLE CHALLENGES. HOWEVER, THE SAFETY BOARD BELIEVES THAT AN INTEGRATED CHILD SEAT WILL NEED TO COMPLY WITH THE DYNAMIC IMPACT TEST REQUIREMENTS DISCUSSED IN THE MINUTES OF SAE'S MEETING. THEREFORE, THE SAE'S DEVELOPMENT OF AN AEROSPACE STANDARD FOR CHILD SEATS USED ON AIRCRAFT IS AN ACCEPTABLE ALTERNATIVE RESPONSE TO A-95-50. THE SAFETY BOARD BELIEVES THAT THE SAE AEROSPACE STANDARD SHOULD BE WRITTEN TO ALLOW FOR THE TESTING OF AN INTEGRATED CHILD SEAT IF ONE IS DEVELOPED IN THE FUTURE. PENDING OUR REVIEW OF THE SAE AEROSPACE STANDARD FOR CHILD RESTRAINT SYSTEMS DESIGNED FOR USE ON BOARD AIRCRAFT AND ITS INCORPORATION INTO AN FAA TSO, A-95-50 IS CLASSIFIED "OPEN--ACCEPTABLE ALTERNATE RESPONSE."

From: FAA
To: NTSB
Date: 12/6/1999
Response: Letter Mail Controlled 12/09/1999 12:30:46 PM MC# 991437 THE FAA, THROUGH THE SOCIETY OF AUTOMOTIVE ENGINEERS (SAE) SEAT COMMITTEE AND CABIN SAFETY PROVISIONS COMMITTEE, HAS DETERMINED THAT IT IS NOT FEASIBLE TO DEVELOP AN "INTEGRATED" CHILD RESTRAINT SYSTEM INTO A TRANSPORT AIRCRAFT PASSENGER SEAT. THE CONSENSUS WITHIN THE SAE COMMITTEE WAS TO DEVELOP AN AEROSPACE STANDARD FOR CHILD RESTRAINT SYSTEMS DESIGNED FOR USE ON BOARD AIRCRAFT. I HAVE ENCLOSED A COPY OF THE MINUTES OF THE SAE MEETING FOR THE BOARD'S INFORMATION. IT WAS ANTICIPATED THAT THE AEROSPACE STANDARD WOULD BE ISSUED BY MARCH 1999. HOWEVER, DUE TO PROBLEMS AND DELAYS WITH THE APPROVAL PROCESS WITHIN SAE, THE AEROSPACE STANDARD WILL NOT BE ISSUED UNTIL MARCH 2000, AND THE PROPOSED TECHNICAL STANDARD ORDER (TSO) ADOPTING THE AEROSPACE STANDARD IN JULY 2000.

From: NTSB
To: FAA
Date: 11/17/1998
Response: THE BOARD WOULD LIKE ADDITIONAL INFO, SUCH AS THE MINUTES OF THE SAE COMMITTEE MEETINGS, ABOUT WHY INTEGRATED RESTRAINTS ARE NOT FEASIBLE. PENDING REVIEW OF THIS INFO & THE FAA'S ADOPTION OF THE NEW STANDARD, A-95-50 IS CLASSIFIED "OPEN--ACCEPTABLE RESPONSE."

From: NTSB
To: FAA
Date: 8/4/1998
Response: Notation 7019: The National Transportation Safety Board has reviewed your Advance Notice of Proposed Rulemaking (ANPRM), "Child Restraint Systems," which was published in 63 FR 8323 on February 18, 1998. The ANPRM requests comments on crash performance and ease-of-use information about existing and new automotive child restraint systems (CRS), when used in aircraft, as well as the development of any other new or improved CRS designed exclusively for aircraft use. The ANPRM also seeks information about the technical practicality and cost feasibility of requiring small children and infants to be restrained in CRS in aircraft. The ANPRM is in response to the February 12, 1997, report to President Clinton by the White House Commission on Aviation Safety and Security. The report stated, "The [Federal Aviation Administration] FAA should revise its regulations to require that all occupants be restrained during takeoff: landing, and turbulent conditions, and that all infants and small children below the weight of40 pounds and under the height of 40 inches be restrained in an appropriate child restraint system, such as child safety seats, appropriate to their height and weight." In 1979, the Safety Board issued its first safety recommendation regarding CRS aboard aircraft. At that time, the Board recommended that the FAA expedite research with a view toward early rulemaking on a means to most effectively restrain infants and small children during in-flight upsets and survivable crash landings (A-79-63). Since then the Safety Board has issued five additional recommendations on this subject. In 1983, the Safety Board recommended that the FAA accept CRS approved by the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA) until the FAA and the NHTSA developed CRS standards acceptable for both automotive and aircraft use (A-83-1). In 1990, the Safety Board recommended that the FAA require that all aircraft occupants be restrained (A-90-78) and that the FAA conduct research to determine at what age/size children can be properly restrained by aircraft lap belts (A-90-79). Safety Recommendation A-90-78 was classified "Closed-Unacceptable/Superseded" on May 26, 1995, and A-90-79 was classified "Closed-Acceptable Action" on May 15, 1995. In its April 4, 1995, accident report on the crash of a DC-9 in Charlotte, North Carolina, the Safety Board noted its disappointment with the FAA's actions regarding the required use of CRS on air carrier flights. The report noted the probable introduction of ISOFIX (standard CRS attachments that will be incorporated into the design of automobiles) and expressed Safety Board concerns about possible future problems for parents who might not have the appropriate CRS for aircraft use. Accordingly, the Safety Board issued a recommendation asking the FAA to develop standards for forward-facing, integrated CRS for use in aircraft (A-95-50). Safety Recommendation A-95-50 was classified "Open-Acceptable Response" on July 26, 1996. The Safety Board continues to believe that all occupants, including young children should be restrained. Not requiring restraint use for infants and children Jess than 2 years old is inconsistent with recent policy by several airlines that seated occupants should be restrained at all times during a flight to ensure their safety. The Safety Board also continues to believe that the FAA should develop standards for integrated CRS for aircraft. The Safety Board is aware that the NHTSA has issued a proposed revision to Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standard 213 to consider a method of securing CRS in automobiles. This change would require motor vehicles to have a dedicated anchorage system for CRS separate from the seatbelt system. These changes would make it impossible to use a CRS with an airline Jap belt and further reinforce the need to develop standards for integrated CRS for aircraft. The Safety Board appreciates the opportunity to comment on this ANPRM.

From: FAA
To: NTSB
Date: 4/24/1998
Response: (Letter Mail Controlled 4/29/98 2:48:26 PM MC# 980548) THE FAA, THROUGH THE SOCIETY OF AUTOMOTIVE ENGINEERS (SAE) SEAT COMMITTEE & CABIN SAFETY PROVISIONS COMMITTEE, HAS DETERMINED THAT IT IS NOT FEASIBLE TO DEVELOP AN "INTEGRATED" CHILD RESTRAINT SYSTEM INTO A TRANSPORT AIRCRAFT PASSENGER SEAT. THE CONSENSUS WITHIN THE SAE COMMITTEE IS TO DEVELOP AN AEROSPACE STANDARD FOR CHILD RESTRAINT SYSTEMS DESIGNED FOR USE ON BOARD AIRCRAFT. IT IS ANTICIPATED THAT THE AEROSPACE STANDARD WILL BE ISSUED BY MAY 1999. THE FAA WILL ISSUE A TECHNICAL STANDARD ORDER ADOPTING THE AEROSPACE STANDARD.

From: FAA
To: NTSB
Date: 7/26/1996
Response: (FOLLOWUP DATE 1/3/96) THE BOARD NOTES THE FAA'S ONGOING EFFORTS TO DEVELOP STANDARDS FOR INTEGRATED CHILD SAFETY SEATS. THEREFORE, PENDING TIMELY COMPLETION OF THOSE STANDARDS, THE BOARD CLASSIFIED A-95-50 "OPEN--ACCEPTABLE RESPONSE."

From: FAA
To: NTSB
Date: 8/14/1995
Response: THE FAA HAS REQUESTED ASSISTANCE FROM THE MAJOR AIRFRAME & SEAT MANFACTURERS REGARDING THE FEASIBILITY OF DEVELOPING AN INTEGRATED CHILD RESTRAINT SYSTEM INTO AN AIRCRAFT PASSENGER SEAT. ADDITIONALLY, THE SOCIETY OF AUTOMOTIVE ENGINEERS HAS AGREED TO REESTABLISH AN AD HOC COMMITTEE TO DEVELOP AN INDUSTRY STANDARD. I WILL KEEP THE BOARD APPRISED OF THE FAA'S PROGRESS ON THIS RECOMMENDATION.