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Safety Recommendation Details

Safety Recommendation A-95-049
Details
Synopsis: On 7/2/94, about 1843 eastern daylight time, a Douglas DC-9-31, N954VJ, operated by USAIR, Inc., as flight 1016, collided with trees and a private residence near the Charlotte/ Douglas International Airport, Charlotte, North Carolina, shortly after the flightcrew executed a missed approach from the instrument landing system approach to runway 18R. The captain, first officer, one flight attendant, and one passenger received minor injuries. Two flight attendants and 14 passengers sustained serious injuries. The remaining 37 passengers received fatal injuries. The airplane was destroyed by impact forces and a postcrash fire. Instrument meteorological conditions prevailed at the time of the accident, and an instrument flight rules flight plan had been filed. Flight 1016 was being conducted under 14 code of federal regulations part 121 as a regularly scheduled passenger flight from Columbia, South Carolina, to Charlotte.
Recommendation: TO THE FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION: Reevaluate the windshear training AD based on the facts, conditions and circumstances of this accident, with the view toward incorporating additional simulator training cues, such as scenarios in which no turbulence is encountered, before the onset of the actual windshear, and to include procedures for using the windshear escape maneuver, in lieu of a missed approach procedure, when the airplane is in the final approach phase (below 1,000 feet) and conditions conducive to windshear are present, regardless of whether the pilot encounters airspeed fluctuations or precipitation.
Original recommendation transmittal letter: PDF
Overall Status: Closed - Acceptable Action
Mode: Aviation
Location: CHARLOTTE, NC, United States
Is Reiterated: No
Is Hazmat: No
Is NPRM: No
Accident #: DCA94MA065
Accident Reports: Flight into Terrain during Missed Approach USAir 1016, DC-9-31, N954VJ
Report #: AAR-95-03
Accident Date: 7/2/1994
Issue Date: 5/16/1995
Date Closed: 6/13/1996
Addressee(s) and Addressee Status: FAA (Closed - Acceptable Action)
Keyword(s): Flightcrew, Low Level Windshear, Training and Education, Weather, Wind

Safety Recommendation History
From: NTSB
To: FAA
Date: 6/13/1996
Response: THE BOARD NOTES THAT THE FAA ISSUED ADVISORY CIRCULAR (AC) 120-50A, "GUIDELINES FOR OPERATIONAL APPROVAL OF WINDSHEAR TRAINING PROGRAMS," WHICH INCLUDES WINDSHEAR SCENARIOS THAT ARE NOT PRECEDED BY RAPID AIRSPEED CHANGES OR TURBULENCE. BECAUSE THIS ACTION FULFILLS THE INTENT OF THE RECOMMENDATION, THE BOARD CLASSIFIES A-95-49 "CLOSED--ACCEPTABLE ACTION."

From: FAA
To: NTSB
Date: 4/5/1996
Response: IN THE LETTER DATED 4/5/96, THE FAA STATED THAT IT ISSUED ADVISORY CIRCULAR (AC) 120-50A, GUIDELINES FOR OPERATIONAL APPROVAL OF WINDSHEAR TRAINING PROGRAMS. THIS AC PROVIDES GUIDANCE FOR APPROVAL OF LOW ALTITUDE WINDSHEAR TRAINING FOR OPERATIONS UNDER 14 CFR PARTS 121 & 135. THE OBJECTIVES OF THE SPECIFIC TRAINING PROGRAM INCLUDE IDENTIFYING ACTUAL OR POTENTIAL CONDITIONS FOR WINDSHEAR, ADHERING TO A POLICY OF WINDSHEAR AVOIDANCE, ETC. ADDITIONALLY, THE OBJECTIVE OF THE SIMULATOR PROGRAM INCLUDE RECOGNIZING THE ONSET OF THE WINDSHEAR ENCOUNTER, COORDINATING COCKPIT ACTIVITIES TO IMPROVE THE PILOT'S ABILITY TO RECOGNIZE & TAKE APPROPRIATE ACTIONS TO RECOVER FROM AN INADVERTENT WINDSHEAR ENCOUNTER, & MAKE USE OF PITCH, POWER & AIRPLANE CONFIGURATION TO RECOVER FROM AN INADVERTENT WINDSHEAR ENCOUNTER. THE AC SPECIFICALLY STATES THAT THE WINDSHEAR TRAINING SCENARIOS SHOULD HAVE ENCOUNTERS OF SUFFICIENT SEVERITY TO ALLOW THE PILOT OPPORTUNITY TO DEVELOP WINDSHEAR RECOGNITION SKILLS AS WELL AS RECOVERY PROCEDURES. IN ADDITION, THE SCENARIOS SHOULD BE OFFERED IN WHICH NO TURBULENCE OR RAPID AIRSPEED CHANGES ARE PRESENTED.

From: FAA
To: NTSB
Date: 8/14/1995
Response: THE FAA STAFF MET WITH THE BOARD'S STAFF TO DISCUSS THIS RECOMMENDATION. IT WAS AGREED THAT THE FAA WOULD REVISED ADVISORY CIRCULAR 120-50, GUIDELINES FOR OPERATIONAL APPROVAL OF WINDSHEAR TRAINING PROGRAMS, TO HAVE CERTIFICATE HOLDERS' APPROVED WINDSHEAR TRAINING PROGRAMS INCLUDE WINDSHEAR SCENARIOS IN WHICH TURBULENCE IS NOT PRESENTED. ADDITONALLY, INFO WILL BE ADDED TO THE AC STATING THAT WHEN PILOTS EXECUTE A MISSED APPROACH DURING CONDITIONS THAT ARE CONDUCIVE TO WINDSHEAR, THE MISSED APPROACH WILL BE FLOWN IN AN AGGRESSIVE MANNER TO INCREASE THE KINETIC ENERGY OF THE AIRCRAFT. FLIGHTCREWS WILL BE PREPARED TO TRANSITION IMMEDIATELY TO THE APPROVED WINDSHEAR ESCAPE MANEUVER SHOULD WINDSHEAR BE LATER ENCOUNTERED. THIS AC WILL BE ISSUED BY 12/31/95.