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Safety Recommendation Details

Safety Recommendation A-93-027
Details
Synopsis: ON SUNDAY, MARCH 22, 1992, ABOUT 2135 EASTERN STANDARD TIME, A FOKKER 28-4000 (F-28), N485US, OPERATING AS USAIR FLIGHT 405, CRASHED DURING AN ATTEMPTED TAKEOFF FROM RUNWAY 13 AT LAGUARDIA AIRPORT, FLUSHING, NEW YORK. THE AIRPLANE WAS OPERATING UNDER TITLE 14, CODE OF FEDERAL REGULATIONS (CFR), PART 121, AS A SCHEDULED PASSENGER FLIGHT FROM JACKSONVILLE, FLORIDA, TO CLEVELAND, OHIO, WITH A STOPOVER AT LAGUARDIA AIRPORT. THERE WERE 47 PASSENGERS, 2 FLIGHTCREW MEMBERS AND 2 CABINCREW MEMBERS ON BOARD. THE CAPTAIN, ONE OF THE CABINCREW MEMBERS, AND 25 PASSENGERS RECEIVED FATAL INJURIES. IMPACT FORCES AND THE SUBSEQUENT FIRE DESTROYED THE AIRPLANE.
Recommendation: THE NTSB RECOMMENDS THAT THE FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION: THOROUGHLY RESEARCH THE EFFECTS OF TYPE II FLUIDS ON RUNWAY SURFACE FRICTION COEFFICIENTS TO ENSURE THAT ITS USE DOES NOT DEGRADE AIRPLANE TRACTION AND BRAKING BEYOND SAFE LIMITS, AND PUBLISH GUIDELINES FOR THE USE OF TYPE II FLUIDS BY AIRPORT OPERATORS.
Original recommendation transmittal letter: PDF
Overall Status: Closed - Acceptable Action
Mode: Aviation
Location: FLUSHING, NY, United States
Is Reiterated: No
Is Hazmat: No
Is NPRM: No
Accident #: DCA92MA025
Accident Reports: Takeoff Stall in Icing Conditions USAIR Flight 405, FOKKER F-28, N485US
Report #: AAR-93-02
Accident Date: 3/22/1992
Issue Date: 3/18/1993
Date Closed: 7/11/1997
Addressee(s) and Addressee Status: FAA (Closed - Acceptable Action)
Keyword(s):

Safety Recommendation History
From: NTSB
To: FAA
Date: 7/11/1997
Response: A-93-27 ASKED THE FAA TO THOROUGHLY RESEARCH THE EFFECTS OF TYPE II FLUIDS ON RUNWAY SURFACE FRICTION COEFFICIENTS TO ENSURE THAT ITS USE DOES NOT DEGRADE AIRPLANE TRACTION & BRAKING BEYOND SAFE LIMITS, & PUBLISH GUIDELINES FOR THE USE OF TYPE II FLUIDS BY AIRPORT OPERATORS. THE RESEARCH THAT WAS COMPLETED BY THE FAA & ITS RESULTANT CONCLUSIONS MEET THE INTENT OF A-93-27. THEREFORE, A-93-27 IS CLASSIFIED "CLOSED--ACCEPTABLE ACTION."

From: FAA
To: NTSB
Date: 5/21/1997
Response: THE FAA HAS COMPLETED ITS RESEARCH OF THE SLIPPERY EFFECTS OF TYPE II AIRCRAFT DEICING FLUID ON RUNWAY SURFACES, & CONCLUDED THAT DEICING FLUID DEICING DEPOSITS DID NOT SIGNIFICANTLY AFFECT AIRCRAFT PERFORMANCE AND; NO OPERATIONAL RESTRICTIONS ON THE PART OF THE AIRPORT OPERATORS OR AIR CARRIERS ARE REQUIRED.

From: NTSB
To: FAA
Date: 12/20/1994
Response: THE BOARD NOTES THAT DURING 1991 & 1992, THE FAA & INDUSTRY CONDUCTED FIELD TESTS TO EVALUATE THE EFFECTS OF TYPE II FLUID ON RUNWAYS. ALTHOUGH ADDITIONAL TESTING IS NECESSARY, THE EFFECTS OF TYPE II FLUID ON BRAKING PERFORMANCE ON THE PAVEMENT TYPES TESTED TO DATE ARE VERY SIMILAR TO THOSE OF THE BRAKING PERFORMANCE ON A WET RUNWAY. ADDITIONALLY, THE FAA WILL CONTINUE ITS EFFORTS TO DETERMINE DISTRIBUTION PATTERNS OF TYPE II FLUID FROM VARIOUS TYPES OF AIRCRAFT, & THE DEGREE OF SLICKNESS FROM TYPE II FLUID ON VARIOUS TYPES OF PAVEMENT, & WILL INCLUDE THE RESULTS OF ITS RESEARCH ON THIS SUBJECT IN AN AC FOR USE BY AIRPORT OPERATORS. BASE ON THIS INFO & PENDING ISSUANCE OF THE AC, THE BOARD CLASSIFIES A-93-27 "OPEN--ACCEPTABLE RESPONSE."

From: FAA
To: NTSB
Date: 5/27/1993
Response: THE FAA AGREES WITH THIS RECOMMENDATION. DURING 1991 & 1992, THE FAA & INDUSTRY CONDUCTED FIELD TEST TO EVALUATE THE SLIPPERY EFFECTS OF TYPE II FLUIDS ON RUNWAYS. THE FAA WILL CONTINUE ITS EFFORTS TO DETERMINE DISTRIBUTION PATTERS 0F TYPE II FLUID FROM VARIOUS TYPES OF AIRCRAFT & THE SLIPPERY EFFECTS OF THAT AMOUNT OF TYPE II FLUID ON VARIOUS TYPES OF PAVEMENT. ALTHOUGH ADDITIONAL TESTING IS NECESSARY, THE BRAKING PERFORMANCE OF TYPE II FLUID ON THE PAVEMENT TYPES TESTED TO DATE IS VERY SIMILAR TO THE BRAKING PERFORMANCE ON A WET RUNWAY. THE AA PLANS TO INCLUDE THE RESULTS OF ITS RESEARCH ON THIS SUBJECT IN AN AC FOR USE BY AIRPORT OPERATORS. I WILL KEEP THE BOARD APPRISED OF THE FAA'S PROGRESS ON THIS RECOMMENDATION.