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Safety Recommendation Details

Safety Recommendation A-83-055
Details
Synopsis: ON NOVEMBER 20, 1982, A NORTH AMERICAN ROCKWELL AERO COMMANDER MODEL 560E, N3827C, AND A CESSNA MODEL 182Q, N96402, COLLIDED IN MIDAIR ABOUT 2,000 FEET OVER LIVINGSTON, NEW JERSEY, AND CRASHED. THE WEATHER WAS CLEAR AT THE COLLISION ALTITUDE, AND BOTH AIRPLANES WERE OPERATING UNDER VISUAL FLIGHT RULES. THE ACCIDENT OCCURRED IN THE CONTROLLED AIRSPACE OF THE NEW YORK TERMINAL CONTROL AREA (TCA). SHORTLY BEFORE THE COLLISION, THE PILOT OF N3827C HAD ADVISED A NEW YORK TERMINAL RADAR APPROACH CONTROL (TRACON) CONTROLLER OF HIS LOCATION AND ALTITUDE. THERE WAS NO EVIDENCE THAT THE PILOT OF N96402 HAD RADIO CONTACT WITH AN AIR TRAFFIC FACILITY. THE PILOT AND THE PASSENGERS IN N3827C WERE KILLED; THE PILOT OF N96402, WHO WAS THE AIRPLANE'S ONLY OCCUPANT, ALSO WAS KILLED. IN VIEW OF THE FAVORABLE WEATHER CONDITIONS AND THE ANGLES OF APPROACH, THE SAFETY BOARD COULD NOT DETERMINE WHY BOTH PILOTS DID NOT SEE EACH OTHER.
Recommendation: THE NTSB RECOMMENDS THAT THE FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION: INCLUDE QUESTIONS REGARDING VISUAL SCANNING TECHNIQUES FOR AIRBORNE TARGETS IN WRITTEN EXAMINATIONS FOR PILOT LICENSES.
Original recommendation transmittal letter: PDF
Overall Status: Closed - Acceptable Action
Mode: Aviation
Location: LIVINGSTON, NJ, United States
Is Reiterated: No
Is Hazmat: No
Is NPRM: No
Accident #: DCA83AA006AB
Accident Reports: North American Rockwell Aero Commander Model 560E, N3827C and Cessna 182, N96402 Midair Collision
Report #: AAR-83-03
Accident Date: 11/20/1982
Issue Date: 8/9/1983
Date Closed: 1/15/1986
Addressee(s) and Addressee Status: FAA (Closed - Acceptable Action)
Keyword(s):

Safety Recommendation History
From: NTSB
To: FAA
Date: 1/15/1986
Response: The Safety Board has reviewed the questions on visual scanning that the FAA has distributed to the written test examiners and plans to include in the revised Private Pilot Question Book to be published in January 1986. The Safety Board believes that the inclusion of these questions in the private pilot exam is paramount in that it is best to train pilots on the use of correct scanning techniques early in their aviation studies. The inclusion of these questions in the private pilot written exam, plus the FAA's intention to include questions on visual scanning techniques in the Commercial Pilot Question Book, the Flight Instructor Question Book, and the Fundamentals of Instructing and Ground Instructor Basic- Advanced Question Book, complies with the intent of this recommendation. Safety Recommendation A-83-55 has been classified as "Closed--Acceptable Action."

From: FAA
To: NTSB
Date: 11/1/1985
Response: ENCLOSED FOR THE BOARD'S INFORMATION IS A COPY OF AN ADDENDUM PAGE TO THE FAA'S PRIVATE PILOT QUESTION BOOK. THIS ADDENDUM CONTAINS 10 MULTIPLE-CHOICE QUESTIONS CONCERNING VISUAL SCAN TECHNIQUES FOR USE IN AIRMAN TESTING. THIS MATERIAL WAS DISTRIBUTED TO WRITTEN TEST EXAMINERS THROUGH THE FAA'S GENERAL AVIATION AND FLIGHT STANDARDS DISTRICT OFFICES. FURTHER, A REVISED PRIVATE PILOT QUESTION BOOK CONTAINING QUESTIONS ON VISUAL SCAN TECHNIQUES WILL BE PUBLISHED ON JANUARY 1, 1986. FURTHER, COMMERCIAL PILOT QUESTION BOOK, FLIGHT INSTRUCTOR QUESTION BOOK, AND FUNDAMENTALS OF INSTRUCTING AND GROUND INSTRUCTOR BASIC ADVANCE QUESTION BOOK, ARE SCHEDULED TO BE PUBLISHED BY MARCH OF 1986, AND WILL CONTAIN VISUAL SCAN TECHNIQUES QUESTIONS.

From: NTSB
To: FAA
Date: 7/22/1985
Response: We are pleased to note that in consideration of this recommendation, the FAA intends to develop a series of questions and multiple choice answers as an addendum to the written test guide. We appreciate the FAA's offer to provide the Safety Board with a copy of the addendum when available. This recommendation is classified as "Open-- Acceptable Action."

From: FAA
To: NTSB
Date: 3/19/1985
Response: FAA LTR: AS NOTED IN OUR LETTER DATED JULY 2, 1984, THE FAA HAD RECENTLY PUBLISHED A NEW SERIES OF WRITTEN TEST QUESTION BOOKS FROM WHICH THE FAA WRITTEN TESTS ARE ADMINISTERED. IN RECONSIDERATION OF THE BOARD'S RECOMMENDATION, WE ARE PRESENTLY IN THE PROCESS OF DEVELOPING A SERIES OF QUESTIONS AND MULTIPLE CHOICE ANSWERS PERTAINING TO THE SUBJECT OF VISUAL SCANNING AND COLLISION AVOIDANCE. WE ANTICIPATE THAT THESE QUESTIONS AND MULTIPLE CHOICE ANSWERS WILL BE AVAILABLE AS A FORMAL ADDENDUM TO THE APPROPRIATE EXISTING WRITTEN TEST GUIDES, AND INCLUDED IN THE APPROPRIATE WRITTEN EXAMINATIONS, BEFORE THE END OF 1985. COPIES OF THE ADDENDUM WILL BE TRANSMITTED TO THE BOARD WHEN AVAILABLE.

From: NTSB
To: FAA
Date: 1/17/1985
Response: The Safety Board notes that none of the questions in the current "Private Pilot Question Book" addresses visual scanning techniques. Since the current question book carries an expiration date of September 1, 1986, it will be almost 2 years before questions on visual scanning will be added to the written examinations. The Safety Board believes this is too long a delay for such an important topic. The Safety Board suggests that these questions be added in a formal addendum to the current edition while the publication is updated. Safety Recommendation A-83-55 has been classified as "Open--Unacceptable Action." The Safety Board appreciates the FAA's efforts to respond to these recommendations.

From: FAA
To: NTSB
Date: 7/2/1984
Response: FAA COMMENT: AS OF MARCH 1, 1984, THE FAA PUBLISHED A NEW SERIES OF WRITTEN TEST QUESTION BOOKS FROM WHICH THE FAA WRITTEN TESTS ARE ADMINISTERED (COPY OF THE PRIVATE PILOT QUESTION BOOK ENCLOSED). IN EACH OF THE APPROPRIATE SERIES OF TESTS ARE QUESTIONS AND MULTIPLE CHOICE ANSWERS PERTAINING TO THE SUBJECT OF VISUAL SCANNING AND COLLISION AVOIDANCE. DURING THE NEXT REVISION CYCLE TO THESE WRITTERN EXAMINATIONS, IT IS OUR INTENTION THAT MORE QUESTIONS WILL BE ADDED AND PRESENT QUESTIONS WILL BE MODIFIED TO INCLUDE TESTING OF THE SUBJECT MATERIAL PRESENTED IN AC 90-48C AND THE FILM, "TAKE TWO AND SEE." ADDITIONALLY, THE "SEE AND BE SEEN" VISUAL SCANNING CONCEPT WILL CONTINUE TO BE A PRIORITY TESTING ITEM ON ALL PILOT CERTIFICATION PRACTICAL TESTS.

From: NTSB
To: FAA
Date: 4/18/1984
Response: The Safety Board is aware of the importance that the FAA places on visual scanning. There is a decided difference, however, between merely emphasizing the overall importance of scanning versus providing solid educational material from which an effective technique can be developed. During the 5-year period 1977-1981, there were 149 midair collisions in U.S. civil aviation operations involving 298 pilots. Data Source: NTSB Recommendations to FAA and FAA Responses The Safety Board determined that 228, or 76 percent of these pilots were a cause/factor in the accidents because they "failed to see and avoid other aircraft." We believe this points to a substantial group of pilots who are "looking but are not seeing." The Safety Board believes the problem at least warrants a separate section in the Airman's Information Manual (AIM) dedicated to collision avoidance, with the primary emphasis on visual scanning training. This could also include such things as a general discussion of midair collisions, material from present Exam-O- Grams, material from Advisory Circular 90-48C, and most importantly, material from the Aircraft Owners and Pilots Association's "Take Two and See." Recent statistics which the Safety Board has received from the Government Printing Office (GPO) indicate that as of November 28, 1983, 14,266 copies of the AIM were sold to subscribers. As of the same date, 1,431 subscribers were on the GPO list to receive revisions of the VFR and IFR Exam-0-Grams. We believe that these figures emphasize what we stated in our original letter; that is, that some of your information is disseminated "in a less popular, seldom read format." The Safety Board believes also that this justifies the recommendation that presently available material be included in a publication "referred to by pilots on a continuing basis." Our reason for the recommendations was to promote dissemination of information on visual scanning to as many pilots as possible. To assure this and to maintain proper perspective on the importance of the subject, we believe that written examinations should cover this information. We urge you to reconsider your initial position taken regarding these recommendations. Pending further response, Safety Recommendations A-83-54 and -55 have been classified as "Open--Unacceptable Action."

From: FAA
To: NTSB
Date: 10/18/1983
Response: FAA LETTER: THE FAA CONTINUES TO PLACE A GREAT DEAL OF EMPHASIS ON THE IMPORTANCE OF VISUAL SCANNING IN ALL PHASES OF PILOT AND FLIGHT OPERATIONS. THIS IS EVIDENT THROUGH THE FAA'S DISSEMINATION OF INFORMATION AND EDUCATIONAL MATERIAL AVAILABLE TO PILOTS AND FLIGHTCREW MEMBERS REGARDING VISUAL SCANNING TECHNIQUES AND THEIR RESPONSIBILITY IN COLLISION AVOIDANCE. THIS INFORMATION IS ADDRESSED IN SUCH FAA PUBLICATIONS AS IFR AND VFR PILOT EXAM-O-GRAMS, ADVISORY CIRCULAR (AC) 61-23B, PILOT'S HANDBOOK OF AERONAUTICAL KNOWLEDGE; AC 61-21A, FLIGHT TRAINING HANDBOOK; AC 61-54A, PRIVATE PILOT AIRPLANE FLIGHT TEST GUIDE; AC 61-55A, COMMERCIAL PILOT AIRPLANE FLIGHT TEST GUIDE; AS WELL AS THE AIRMAN'S INFORMATION MANUAL. COLLISION AVOIDANCE AND THE PHILOSOPHY OF CONSCIENTIOUS AND CONTINUOUS TIME SHARING BETWEEN SCANNING THE AREA IN WHICH THE AIRCRAFT IS OPERATING AND THE COCKPIT ARE EMPHASIZED IN OUR DAY-TO-DAY CONTACT WITH PIOTS AND THE AVIATION COMMUNITY. THIS IS ACCOMPLISHED THROUGH PERSONAL CONTACT BY OUR FLIGHT OPERATIONS INSPEC TORS, DESIGNATED FLIGHT EXAMINERS, AND ACCIDENT PREVENTION COUNSELORS. THESE CONTACTS MAY BE IN THE FORM OF AN EN ROUTE INSPECTION OF AN AIR CARRIER OR AIR TAXI FLIGHTCREW. ALL AIR CARRIER AND AIR TAXI EN ROUTE INSPEC TION FORMS INCLUDE A CHECK ON COCKPIT VIGILANCE. ALSO, VISUAL SCANNING AND COLLISION AVOIDANCE ARE FREQUENT AGENDA TOPICS THAT ARE PRESENTED TO THE AVIATION COMMUNITY THROUGH THE FAA'S ACCIDENT PREVENTION PROGRAM AND FLIGHT INSTRUCTOR REFRESHER CLINICS. THERE IS NO IRONCLAD RULE REGARDING THE IDEAL METHOD OF SCANNING. HOWEVER, WE BELIEVE THE VARIOUS PROGRAMS AND EDUCATIONAL MATERIALS DISSEMINATED BY FAA AND INDUSTRY PROVIDE ADEQUATE GUIDANCE TO PILOTS, FLIGHTCREW MEMBERS, AND INSTRUCTORS CONCERNING EFFECTIVE SCANNING TECHNIQUES AND VIGILANCE TO ENHANCE COLLISION AVOIDANCE. WE CONSIDER THE FAA'S EXISTING PROGRAMS AND PUBLICATIONS MORE THAN ADEQUATE AND PLAN NO FURTHER ACTION ON THESE RECOMMENDATIONS.