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Safety Recommendation Details

Safety Recommendation A-83-054
Details
Synopsis: ON NOVEMBER 20, 1982, A NORTH AMERICAN ROCKWELL AERO COMMANDER MODEL 560E, N3827C, AND A CESSNA MODEL 182Q, N96402, COLLIDED IN MIDAIR ABOUT 2,000 FEET OVER LIVINGSTON, NEW JERSEY, AND CRASHED. THE WEATHER WAS CLEAR AT THE COLLISION ALTITUDE, AND BOTH AIRPLANES WERE OPERATING UNDER VISUAL FLIGHT RULES. THE ACCIDENT OCCURRED IN THE CONTROLLED AIRSPACE OF THE NEW YORK TERMINAL CONTROL AREA (TCA). SHORTLY BEFORE THE COLLISION, THE PILOT OF N3827C HAD ADVISED A NEW YORK TERMINAL RADAR APPROACH CONTROL (TRACON) CONTROLLER OF HIS LOCATION AND ALTITUDE. THERE WAS NO EVIDENCE THAT THE PILOT OF N96402 HAD RADIO CONTACT WITH AN AIR TRAFFIC FACILITY. THE PILOT AND THE PASSENGERS IN N3827C WERE KILLED; THE PILOT OF N96402, WHO WAS THE AIRPLANE'S ONLY OCCUPANT, ALSO WAS KILLED. IN VIEW OF THE FAVORABLE WEATHER CONDITIONS AND THE ANGLES OF APPROACH, THE SAFETY BOARD COULD NOT DETERMINE WHY BOTH PILOTS DID NOT SEE EACH OTHER.
Recommendation: THE NTSB RECOMMENDS THAT THE FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION: CONSOLIDATE INFORMATION ON VISUAL SCAN TECHNIQUES IN ADVISORY CIRCULAR AC90-48C, "PILOTS ROLE IN COLLISION AVOIDANCE," AND INFORMATION SUCH AS THAT CONTAINED IN THE AIRCRAFT OWNERS AND PILOTS ASSOCIATION'S PROGRAM "TAKE TWO AND SEE," REGARDING VISUAL SCAN TECHNIQUES, IN ONE OR MORE PUBLICATIONS THAT ARE REFERRED TO BY PILOTS ON A CONTINUING BASIS.
Original recommendation transmittal letter: PDF
Overall Status: Closed - Acceptable Alternate Action
Mode: Aviation
Location: LIVINGSTON, NJ, United States
Is Reiterated: No
Is Hazmat: No
Is NPRM: No
Accident #: DCA83AA006AB
Accident Reports: North American Rockwell Aero Commander Model 560E, N3827C and Cessna 182, N96402 Midair Collision
Report #: AAR-83-03
Accident Date: 11/20/1982
Issue Date: 8/9/1983
Date Closed: 7/22/1985
Addressee(s) and Addressee Status: FAA (Closed - Acceptable Alternate Action)
Keyword(s):

Safety Recommendation History
From: NTSB
To: FAA
Date: 3/20/1985
Response: We are pleased with the excellent article published in the July-August 1984 issue of the FAA's General Aviation News giving emphasis to the techniques of visual scanning described in the Aircraft Owners and Pilot Association's slide show "Take Two and See." The Safety Board accepts the article in the FAA's General Aviation News as meeting the intent of Safety Recommendation A-83-54 which we have classified "Closed--Acceptable Alternate Action." This recommendation called for visual scan techniques to be explained in one or more of the publications that are referred to by pilots on a continuing basis. In our recommendation letter we mentioned the "Flight Training Handbook," "Instrument Flying Handbook," "Pilot's Handbook of Aeronautical Knowledge," and the "Airman's Information Manual." These books do not adequately emphasize and give prominence to the techniques of visual scanning so well described in the FAA's General Aviation News. We suggest that when these books are amended or revised that the techniques of scanning be given greater emphasis.

From: FAA
To: NTSB
Date: 3/19/1985
Response: FAA LTR: THE FAA IS PREPARING AN ITEM, "COLLISION AVOIDANCE (SCANNING FOR OTHER AIRCRAFT)," TO BE PUBLISHED IN THE AIRMANS INFORMATION MANUAL (AIM). WE ANTICIPATE THAT THIS ITEM WILL BE PUBLISHED IN THE JUNE 6, 1985, ISSUE OF THE AIM (DRAFT COPY ENCLOSED). THIS CHANGE TO THE AIM IS IN ADDITION TO AN ARTICLE IN THE JULY-AUGUST 1984 ISSUE OF THE FAA GENERAL AVIATION NEWS WHICH STRESSES VISUAL SCAN TECHNIQUES. THE ARTICLE IN THE FAA GENERAL AVIATION NEWS WAS PREPARED FROM INFORMATION CONTAINED IN ADVISORY CIRCULAR (AC) 90-48C, "PILOTS' ROLE IN COLLISION AVOIDANCE," AND ALSO INCLUDED INFORMATION FROM THE AIRCRAFT OWNERS AND PILOTS ASSOCIATION'S FILM TITLED "TAKE TWO AND SEE."

From: NTSB
To: FAA
Date: 3/19/1985
Response:

From: NTSB
To: FAA
Date: 1/17/1985
Response: The Safety Board is pleased to learn that the FAA published an article in the July-August 1984 issue of the FAA General Aviation News on visual scan techniques. While the Safety Board agrees that more pilots may initially see this article than if published in the Airman's Information Manual (AIM) (40,000 copies of each issue of the FAA General Aviation News versus 14,266 copies of the AIM), we believe that inclusion of the material in the AIM and other publications used on a continuing basis by pilots would be of greater long term benefit. Publications used as references by pilots on a continuing basis are kept in a pilot "aviation library," while an issue of the FAA General Aviation News is likely to be discarded when the next issue arrives. Since this information is included in the AIM, in three publishing cycles the total number of copies published will exceed the single distribution of the FAA General Aviation News. The Safety Board continues to believe that information on visual scanning techniques will have a more enduring value if included in the AIM and similar publications. Safety Recommendation A-83-54 has been classified as "Open--Unacceptable Action."

From: FAA
To: NTSB
Date: 10/30/1984
Response: FAA LTR: ENCLOSED FOR THE BOARD'S INFORMATION IS A COPY OF AN ARTICLE THAT WAS PUBLISHED IN THE JULY-AUGUST 1984 ISSUE OF THE FAA GENERAL AVIATION NEWS. THIS ARTICLE CONTAINS AND STRESSES INFORMATION ON THE VISUAL SCAN TECHNIQUES CONTAINED IN ADVISORY CIRCULAR (AC) 90-48C, PILOTS' ROLE IN COLLISION AVOIDANCE, AND ALSO INFORMATION EXTRACTED FROM THE AIRCRAFT OWNERS AND PILOTS ASSOCIATION'S FILM TITLED "TAKE TWO AND SEE." THE FAA GENERAL AVIATION NEWS IS COMPILED AND PUBLISHED BY THE FAA'S OFFICE OF FLIGHT OPERATIONS AND IS DESIGNED TO PROMOTE AVIATION SAFETY BY CALLING ATTENTION OF AIRMEN TO CURRENT TECHNICAL, REGULATORY, AND PROCEDURAL MATTERS AFFECTING THE SAFE OPERATION OF AIRCRAFT. SIX ISSUES OF THIS PUBLICATION ARE DISTRIBUTED TO THE AVIATION PUBLIC EACH YEAR, WITH EACH ISSUE HAVING A CIRCULATION OF APPROXIMATELY 40,000.

From: FAA
To: NTSB
Date: 7/2/1984
Response: FAA COMMENT: THE FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION (FAA) IS PRESENTLY DEVELOPING AN ARTICLE THAT WILL BE PUBLISHED IN THE JULY-AUGUST 1984 ISSUE OF THE FAA GENERAL AVIATION NEWS. THIS ARTICLE WILL CONTAIN AND STRESS INFORMATION ON THE VISUAL SCAN TECHNIQUES CONTAINED IN ADVISORY CIRCULAR (AC) 90-48C, PILOTS' ROLE IN COLLISION AVOIDANCE, AND ALSO INFORMATION EXTRACTED FROM THE AIRCRAFT OWNERS AND PILOTS ASSOCIATION'S FILM TITLED, "TAKE TWO AND SEE." THE FAA GENERAL AVIATION NEWS IS COMPILED AND PUBLISHED BY THE FAA'S OFFICE OF FLIGHT OPERATIONS AND IS DESIGNED TO PROMOTE AVIATION SAFETY BY CALLING ATTENTION OF AIRMEN TO CURRENT TECHNICAL, REGULATORY,AND PROCEDURAL MATTERS AFFECTING THE SAFE OPERATION OF AIRCRAFT. APPROXIMATELY 40,000 COPIES OF EACH ISSUE OF THIS PUBLICATION ARE DISTRIBUTED TO THE AVIATION PUBLIC SIX TIMES A YEAR. WE HAVE CONCLUDED FROM OUR EXPERIENCE THAT THIS PUBLICATION WITH ITS LARGER READERSHIP AND DISTRIBUTION AS WELL AS ARTICLE STYLIZING, DEVELOPS A MORE COMPREHENSIVE EDUCATIONAL INFORMATION VEHICLE, AS OPPOSED TO THE AIRMAN'S INFORMATION MANUAL MENTIONED IN YOUR LETTER DATED APRIL 18, 1984, WHICH HAS A SUBSCRIPTION CIRCULATION OF ONLY 14,266 COPIES EACH PUBLICATION CYCLE.

From: NTSB
To: FAA
Date: 4/18/1984
Response: The Safety Board is aware of the importance that the FAA places on visual scanning. There is a decided difference, however, between merely emphasizing the overall Data Source: NTSB Recommendations to FAA and FAA Responses importance of scanning versus providing solid educational material from which an effective technique can be developed. During the 5-year period 1977-1981, there were 149 midair collisions in U.S. civil aviation operations involving 298 pilots. The Safety Board determined that 228, or 76 percent of these pilots were a cause/factor in the accidents because they "failed to see and avoid other aircraft." We believe this points to a substantial group of pilots who are "looking but are not seeing." The Safety Board believes the problem at least warrants a separate section in the Airman's Information Manual (AIM) dedicated to collision avoidance, with primary emphasis on visual scanning training. This could also include such things as a general discussion of midair collisions, material from present Exam-O-Grams, material from Advisory Circular 90-48C, and most importantly, material from the Aircraft Owners and Pilots Association's "Take Two and See." Recent statistics which the Safety Board has received from the Government Printing Office (GPO) indicate that as of November 28, 1983, 14,266 copies of the AIM were sold to subscribers. As of the same date, 1,431 subscribers were on the GPO list to receive revisions of the VFR and IFR Exam-0-Grams. We believe that these figures emphasize what we stated in our original letter; that is, that some of your information is disseminated "in a less popular, seldom read format." The Safety Board believes also that this justifies the recommendation that presently available material be included in a publication "referred to by pilots on a continuing basis." Our reason for the recommendations was to promote dissemination of information on visual scanning to as many pilots as possible. To assure this and to maintain proper perspective on the importance of the subject, we believe that written examinations should cover this information. We urge you to reconsider your initial position taken regarding these recommendations. Pending further response, Safety Recommendations A-83-54 and -55 have been classified as "Open--Unacceptable Action."

From: FAA
To: NTSB
Date: 10/18/1983
Response: FAA LETTER: THE FAA CONTINUES TO PLACE A GREAT DEAL OF EMPHASIS ON THE IMPORTANCE OF VISUAL SCANNING IN ALL PHASES OF PILOT AND FLIGHT OPERATIONS. THIS IS EVIDENT THROUGH THE FAA'S DISSEMINATION OF INFORMATION AND EDUCATIONAL MATERIAL AVAILABLE TO PILOTS AND FLIGHTCREW MEMBERS REGARDING VISUAL SCANNING TECHNIQUES AND THEIR RESPONSIBILITY IN COLLISION AVOIDANCE. THIS INFORMATION IS ADDRESSED IN SUCH FAA PUBLICATIONS AS IFR AND VFR PILOT EXAM-O-GRAMS, ADVISORY CIRCULAR (AC) 61-23B, PILOT'S HANDBOOK OF AERONAUTICAL KNOWLEDGE; AC 61-21A, FLIGHT TRAINING HANDBOOK; AC 61-54A, PRIVATE PILOT AIRPLANE FLIGHT TEST GUIDE; AC 61-55A, COMMERCIAL PILOT AIRPLANE FLIGHT TEST GUIDE; AS WELL AS THE AIRMAN'S INFORMATION MANUAL. COLLISION AVOIDANCE AND THE PHILOSOPHY OF CONSCIENTIOUS AND CONTINUOUS TIME SHARING BETWEEN SCANNING THE AREA IN WHICH THE AIRCRAFT IS OPERATING AND THE COCKPIT ARE EMPHASIZED IN OUR DAY-TO-DAY CONTACT WITH PIOTS AND THE AVIATION COMMUNITY. THIS IS ACCOMPLISHED THROUGH PERSONAL CONTACT BY OUR FLIGHT OPERATIONS INSPECTORS, DESIGNATED FLIGHT EXAMINERS, AND ACCIDENT PREVENTION COUNSELORS. THESE CONTACTS MAY BE IN THE FORM OF AN EN ROUTE INSPECTION OF AN AIR CARRIER OR AIR TAXI FLIGHTCREW. ALL AIR CARRIER AND AIR TAXI EN ROUTE INSPECTION FORMS INCLUDE A CHECK ON COCKPIT VIGILANCE. ALSO, VISUAL SCANNING AND COLLISION AVOIDANCE ARE FREQUENT AGENDA TOPICS THAT ARE PRESENTED TO THE AVIATION COMMUNITY THROUGH THE FAA'S ACCIDENT PREVENTION PROGRAM AND FLIGHT INSTRUCTOR REFRESHER CLINICS. THERE IS NO IRONCLAD RULE REGARDING THE IDEAL METHOD OF SCANNING. HOWEVER, WE BELIEVE THE VARIOUS PROGRAMS AND EDUCATIONAL MATERIALS DISSEMINATED BY FAA AND INDUSTRY PROVIDE ADEQUATE GUIDANCE TO PILOTS, FLIGHTCREW MEMBERS, AND INSTRUCTORS CONCERNING EFFECTIVE SCANNING TECHNIQUES AND VIGILANCE TO ENHANCE COLLISION AVOIDANCE. WE CONSIDER THE FAA'S EXISTING PROGRAMS AND PUBLICATIONS MORE THAN ADEQUATE AND PLAN NO FURTHER ACTION ON THESE RECOMMENDATIONS.