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Safety Recommendation Details

Safety Recommendation A-83-022
Details
Synopsis: ON JULY 9, 1982, PAN AMERICAN WORLD AIRWAYS FLIGHT 759 CRASHED AFTER TAKING OFF FROM RUNWAY 10 AT NEW ORLEANS INTERNATIONAL AIRPORT, KENNER, LOUISIANA. WHEN FLIGHT 759 TOOK OFF, THERE WERE ISOLATED HEAVY SHOWERS OVER THE AIRPORT AND TO THE EAST OF THE AIRPORT ALONG THE AIRPLANE'S INTENDED DEPARTURE PATH. LOW LEVEL WIND SHEAR CONDITIONS HAD BEEN DETECTED BY THE AIRPORT'S LOW LEVEL WIND SHEAR ALERT SYSTEM (LLWSAS), AND THE SYSTEM HAD ALARMED SEVERAL TIMES, THE LAST TIME ABOUT 4 MINUTES BEFORE FLIGHT 759'S TAKEOFF. THE SYSTEM WAS NOT ALARMING AT THE TIME THE TAKEOFF CLEARANCE WAS ISSUED; HOWEVER, A WIND SHEAR ADVISORY WAS BROADCAST 2 SECONDS AFTER THE ACCIDENT.
Recommendation: THE NTSB RECOMMENDS THAT THE FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION: AS THE DATA OBTAINED FROM THE JOINT AIRPORT WEATHER STUDIES (JAWS) PROJECT BECOME AVAILABLE (1) DEVELOP TRAINING AIDS FOR PILOTS AND CONTROLLERS TO EMPHASIZE THE HAZARDS TO FLIGHT FROM CONVECTIVE WEATHER ACTIVITY, (2) DEVELOLP REALISTIC MICROBURST WIND MODELS FOR INCORPORATION INTO PILOT FLIGHT SIMULATOR TRAINING PROGRAMS, AND (3) PROMOTE THE DEVELOPMENT OF AIRBORNE WIND SHEAR DETECTION DEVICES.
Original recommendation transmittal letter: PDF
Overall Status: Closed - Acceptable Action
Mode: Aviation
Location: Kenner, LA, United States
Is Reiterated: No
Is Hazmat: No
Is NPRM: No
Accident #: DCA82AA028
Accident Reports: Pan American World Airways, Inc., Clipper 759, Boeing 727-235, N4737
Report #: AAR-83-02
Accident Date: 7/9/1982
Issue Date: 3/25/1983
Date Closed: 6/18/1990
Addressee(s) and Addressee Status: FAA (Closed - Acceptable Action)
Keyword(s): Air Traffic Control, Flightcrew, Training and Education, Weather

Safety Recommendation History
From: NTSB
To: FAA
Date: 6/18/1990
Response: (PER GREEN SHEET A-90-88 THRU -91) A combination of actions and programs are responsive to these recommendations: the distribution of the Windshear Training Aid, rulemaking to mandate air carrier windshear training programs, required installation of windshear passive warning or active detection devices, and the NASA program to develop look-ahead technology for airborne windshear detection. (Recommendations A- 83-22 and -25, issued March 25, 1983; and A-85-26, issued April 15, 1985, are reclassified as "Closed--Acceptable Action.")

From: FAA
To: NTSB
Date: 12/12/1988
Response: The FAA has a program entitled "Airborne Windshear Detection and Avoidance" to develop the system requirements for forward-looking windshear sensors for aircraft. In 1987, the FAA and NASA signed a memorandum of agreement for airborne windshear detection and avoidance. This memorandum of agreement will be in effect for 5 years. During the first year, the focus of the effort was the development of the definition of the windshear threat in aircraft performance terms. The second year focused on the assessment of radar, laser radar, and infrared technologies. During 1989, the emphasis will be on flight deck integration. The FAA and NASA have provided forums for industry participation of this program. I believe that the FAA has satisfied the intent of this safety recommendation, and I consider the FAA's action completed.

From: NTSB
To: FAA
Date: 9/16/1986
Response: In the course of the Safety Board's investigation of an accident involving Delta Air Lines flight 191 at Dallas/Fort Worth International Airport, Texas, on August 2, 1985, the Safety Board has performed a detailed review of all Safety Recommendations, currently classified as open, issued to the FAA on the subject of windshear. Also addressed in this review were three Safety Recommendations that discussed the timely detection of severe weather, though not specifically related to windshear or microbursts. The Safety Board's review included past FAA responses, evaluation of the FAA's letters of September 24, 1985, and May 5, 1986, and our analysis of the FAA's Integrated Wind Shear Program Plan. A more descriptive review of the FAA's responses to these Safety Recommendations and of the program plan is contained in appendix H of the Safety Board's report of the Delta flight 191 Data Source: NTSB Recommendations to FAA and FAA Responses accident. The open Safety Recommendations reviewed by the Safety Board are as follows: A-74-13 A-76-34 A-77-63 A-80-118 A-83-15 A-83-18 A-83-19 A-83-20 A-83-21 A-83-22 A-83-23 A-83-24 A-83-25 A-85-26 A-85-27 The Safety Board has carefully reviewed the Integrated Wind Shear Program Plan and the two letters from the FAA mentioned above and finds that the actions concurrently being taken and planned by the FAA will comply with the intent of all of the above Safety Recommendations when implemented. Therefore, all of the above-listed Safety Recommendations have been classified as "Open--Acceptable Action" pending completion of the FAA's planned actions. The Safety Board appreciates the FAA's actions to improve windshear detection and avoidance, and in the dissemination of information on windshear.

From: NTSB
To: FAA
Date: 8/21/1986
Response: The Safety Board believes that the actions taken by the FAA have the potential to comply with the intent of this recommendation. Therefore, pending the completion of the FAA efforts, Safety Recommendation A-83-22 has been classified as "0pen-- Acceptable Action." The Safety Board would appreciate continuing to receive status reports of these efforts.

From: FAA
To: NTSB
Date: 7/10/1986
Response: ON NOVEMBER 25, 1985, THE FAA AWARDED A CONTRACT TO THE BOEING COMMERICAL AIRPLANE COMPANY TO DEVELOP A WIND SHEAR TRAINING AID PROGRAM. THE ULTIMATE OBJECTIVE OF THIS PROGRAM IS TO PROVIDE THE AVIATION COMMUNITY WITH EDUCATIONAL MATERIALS AND TRAINING AIDS, AS WELL AS OPERATING TECHNIQUES TO COPE WITH INADVERTANT ENCOUNTERS WITH HAZARDOUS WIND SHEAR CONDITIONS. THE FAA HAS JOINED WITH NASA TO PROMOTE THE DEVELOPMENT OF AIRBORNE WIND SHEAR DETECTION AND AVOIDANCE DEVICES. THE PURPOSE OF THIS EFFORT WILL BE TO DEVELOP THE SYSTEMS REQUIREMENTS FOR FORWARD-LOOKING WIND SHEAR SENSORS FOR AIRCRAFT.

From: NTSB
To: FAA
Date: 5/29/1984
Response: The development of an informational film detailing the hazards associated with convective weather, the reduction of JAWS data for use in simulator training of pilots, and the continued research in airborne wind shear detection devices are responsive to Safety Recommendation A-83-22. The Safety Board has reviewed the informational film and believes that it does satisfy the intent of the first part of the recommendation. Pending review of the microburst wind models and the progress of research in the area of airborne wind shear detection devices, Safety Recommendation A-83-22 will be maintained in an Data Source: NTSB Recommendations to FAA and FAA Responses "Open--Acceptable Action" status.

From: FAA
To: NTSB
Date: 7/21/1983
Response: FAA LETTER: THE FAA IS PLANNING ON DEVELOPING AN INFORMATIONAL FILM FOR USE BY PILOTS AND CONTROLLERS DETAILING THE HAZARDS ASSOCIATED WITH CONVECTIVE WEATHER. THIS IS BEING PRODUCED AS PART OF THE JAWS PROJECT. THE FILM WILL BE COMPLETED AND AVAILABLE BY APRIL 1984. DATA FROM THE JAWS PROGRAM ARE BEING REDUCED AND WILL BE USED BY FAA/NASA TO DEVELOP UPDATED REALISTIC MICROBURST/DOWNBURST MODELS TO BE USED IN SIMULATOR TRAINING OF PILOTS. AN INDUSTRY/ GOVERNMENT MEETING WILL BE SCHEDULED IN SEPTEMBER 1983 TO FINALIZE THE WIND SHEAR MODEL DEFINITION AND USE FOR TRAINING. NASA IS DEVELOPING DESIGN GUIDELINES FOR CHANGES NEEDED TO IMPROVE THE PERFORMANCE OF AIRBORNE DOPPLER RADARS. THESE CHANGES ARE BASED ON NASA EXPERIENCE WITH AN EXPERIMENTAL AIRBORNE DOPPLER SYSTEM AND WILL BE MADE AVAILABLE TO INDUSTRY; THEY WILL ENHANCE THE CAPABILITY OF CURRENT AIRBORNE SYSTEMS TO DETECT WIND SHEAR CONDITIONS. RESEARCH WORK CONTINUES ON OTHER TYPES OF SENSORS INCLUDING INFRARED AND LIGHT DETECTION AND RANGING SYSTEMS. THE FAA, IN PROMOTING THE DEVELOPMENT OF AIRBORNE WIND SHEAR DETECTION DEVICES, HAS DRAFTED AND CIRCULATED WITHIN INDUSTRY AN AC (AC 120.XX) WHICH DEFINES THE CRITERIA FOR SUCH SYSTEMS TO BE USED IN AIR CARRIER OPERATIONS. THE AC IS INTENDED TO PROMOTE THE DEVELOPMENT AND USE OF THESE SYSTEMS.