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Safety Recommendation Details

Safety Recommendation A-82-168
Details
Synopsis: ON JANUARY 23, 1982, WORLD AIRWAYS, INC., FLIGHT 30H, A MCDONNELL DOUGLAS DC-10-30, WAS A REGULARLY SCHEDULED PASSENGER FLIGHT FROM OAKLAND, CALIFORNIA, TO BOSTON, MASSACHUSETTS, WITH AN EN ROUTE STOP AT NEWARK, NEW JERSEY. FOLLOWING A NONPRECISION INSTRUMENT APPROACH TO RUNWAY 15R AT BOSTON-LOGAN INTERNATIONAL AIRPORT, THE AIRPLANE TOUCHED DOWN ABOUT 2,500 FEET BEYOND THE DISPLACED THRESHOLD OF THE RUNWAY, LEAVING 6,691 FEET REMAINING ON WHICH TO STOP. ABOUT 1936:40, THE AIRPLANE VEERED TO AVOID THE APPROACH LIGHT PIER AT THE DEPARTURE END OF THE RUNWAY AND SLID INTO THE SHALLOW WATER OF BOSTON HARBOR. THE NOSE SECTION SEPARATED FROM THE FORWARD FUSELAGE AFTER THE AIRPLANE DROPPED ONTO THE SHORE EMBANKMENT. OF THE 212 PERSONS ON BOARD, 2 ARE MISSING AND PRESUMED DEAD. THE OTHERS EVACUATED THE AIRPLANE SAFELY, BUT WITH SOME INJURIES. THE REPORTED WEATHER WAS A MEASURED 800-FOOT OVERCAST, 2 1/2 MILE VISIBILITY, LIGHT RAIN AND FOG, TEMPERATURE 35 DEGREES, AND WIND 165 DEGREES AT 3 KNS. THE WET RUNWAY WAS COVERED WITH HARD-PACKED SNOW AND A COATING OF RAIN AND/OR GLAZED ICE.
Recommendation: THE NTSB RECOMMENDS THAT THE FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION: IN COORDINATION WITH THE NATIONAL AERONAUTICS AND SPACE ADMINISTRATION, EXPAND THE CURRENT RESEARCH PROGRAM TO EVALUATE RUNWAY FRICTION MEASURING DEVICES WHICH CORRELATE FRICTION MEASUREMENTS WITH AIRPLANE STOPPING PERFORMANCE TO EXAMINE THE USE OF AIRPLANE SYSTEMS SUCH AS ANTISKID BRAKE AND INERTIAL NAVIGATION SYSTEMS TO CALCULATE AND DISPLAY IN THE COCKPIT MEASUREMENTS OF ACTUAL EFFECTIVE BRAKING COEFFICIENTS ATTAINED. (Supersedes Safety Recommendations A-74-119 through -121 and A-76-136 and -137)
Original recommendation transmittal letter: PDF
Overall Status: Closed - Unacceptable Action
Mode: Aviation
Location: BOSTON, MA, United States
Is Reiterated: No
Is Hazmat: No
Is NPRM: No
Accident #: DCA82AA013
Accident Reports: World Airways, Inc., Flight 30H, McDonnell Douglas DC-10-30CF, N113WA
Report #: SIR-83-02
Accident Date: 1/23/1982
Issue Date: 12/23/1982
Date Closed: 4/1/1988
Addressee(s) and Addressee Status: FAA (Closed - Unacceptable Action)
Keyword(s):

Safety Recommendation History
From: NTSB
To: FAA
Date: 4/1/1988
Response: Safety Recommendation A-82-168 was intended to prompt FAA to conduct additional research to determine whether the characteristic variables of aircraft systems could be correlated to braking coefficients which could be displayed to pilots for objective braking action reports, e.g., the frequency and peak pressure at which an antiskid system cycles under maximum braking effort on slippery runways would appear to relate to the maximum force which could be transmitted between an aircraft's tires and the runway surface. The FAA's last response to this safety recommendation dated May 5, 1987, expressed concern that such a system would encourage operations from a runway with a very low friction coefficient and further, that it would be of little value because of the differences in braking performance between dissimilar aircraft models. The Safety Board does not believe that sufficient research has been accomplished to conclude that objective measurements taken from dissimilar airplanes would not be meaningful. Furthermore, the Safety Board does not understand or agree with FAA's logic that such reports would encourage operations on slippery runways. It would seem that such reports would be very useful to airport operators as a means of detecting the degradation of runway conditions in winter weather and would provide a basis upon which the pilots of large airplanes could make better decisions from the objective measurements provided by lighter airplanes which may be less critical with regard to runway length. Since the FAA has not been responsive to Safety Recommendations A-82-155 and -168, they are being reclassified as "Closed--Unacceptable Action."

From: FAA
To: NTSB
Date: 5/5/1987
Response: The Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) has completed its review of Safety Recommendation A-82-168 which is basically directed at using onboard aircraft systems to calculate and display, in the cockpit, an effective braking coefficient(s) attained for stopping distance. Additionally, the Board requested a correlation be made between the data obtained from various runway friction measuring devices and the actual airplane friction coefficient developed using the same runway surface conditions. The intent of this recommendation has been suggested many times in the past and has resulted in various research projects since 1970 using resources from the National Aeronautics and Space Administration, Department of Defense, FAA, and foreign governments. None of these projects has produced data or results which reliably correlate aircraft performance to friction measuring devices in an acceptable fashion. The major problem with such an onboard display system is that it would encourage operations from a runway surface that could have a very low friction coefficient. The system, even if perfect, would only display the potential surface conditions after the airplane had landed or needed to stop, which the FAA believes is a reduction in safety. If the intent is to use a preceding airplane to advise a subsequent airplane of the potential runway friction coefficient, this too would potentialy degrade safety since the capabilities of different type aircraft do not necessarily relate to each other. Currently , a pilot advises the airport operations office or air traffic control facility of what he/she considers the surface braking conditions to be based on his/her airplane's response, and this information is used subjectively to plan subsequent operations on the particular runway. I plan no further action on this recommendation.

From: NTSB
To: FAA
Date: 10/26/1984
Response: The Safety Board is pleased to learn that the second half of the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) and the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) research program to correlate runway friction measurement devices has commenced and that data from the NASA B-737 tests of last summer at NASA Wallops Islands, Virginia, have been analyzed. The Safety Board looks forward to the completion of the B-727 phase of the program and reviewing the data and conclusions. Pending completion of the test program and receipt of the final report, Safety Recommendation A-84-168 has been classified as "Open--Acceptable Action."

From: FAA
To: NTSB
Date: 5/7/1984
Response: FAA LETTER: THE FIRST HALF OF THE EXPANDED FAA AND NATIONAL AERONAUTICS AND SPACE ADMINISTRATION (NASA) RESEARCH PROGRAM TO CORRELATE RUNWAY FRICTION MEASURING DEVICES WITH AIRPLANE STOPPING PERFORMANCE WAS COMPLETED DURING THE PERIOD JUNE 13 TO JUNE 31, 1983. THE NASA B-737 AIRPLANE USED IN THE TEST ACCOMPLISHED 54 LANDINGS OR GROUND BRAKING RUNS AT NASA WALLOPS ISLAND, VIRGINIA, AND AT THE FAA TECHNICAL CENTER, ATLANTA CITY, NEW JERSEY, WITH THE RUNWAYS WETTED ARTIFICIALLY. REPRESENTATIVES OF THE BOARD WITNESSED THESE TESTS. FOUR TYPES OF RUNWAY FRICTION MEASUREMENT DEVICES ACCOMPLISHED 430 RUNS THROUGH THE SAME WETTED SURFACES. THE DATA DERIVED FROM THESE TEST RUNS ARE CURRENTLY BEING ANALYZED TO DETERMINE CORRELATION. THE ANALYSIS WILL BE COMPLETED PRIOR TO COMMENCING THE SECOND HALF OF THE PROGRAM DURING MAY 1984 USING THE FAA'S B-727 AIRPLANE WHICH IS CURRENTLY BEING INSTRUMENTED. WE WELCOME YOUR CONTINUED REVIEW OF PROGRAM PLANS AND THE PARTICIPATION BY MEMBERS OF YOUR STAFF IN THE B-727 PHASE OF THE PROGRAM.

From: FAA
To: NTSB
Date: 1/4/1984
Response: The FAA and the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) are currently involved in an Aircraft/Ground Vehicle Runway Friction Program to determine if correlation can be obtained between the aircraft and ground friction measurement devices. The program is being conducted in two phases. Phase I involves aircraft and ground vehicle testing at NASA Wallops Flight Center and the FAA Technical Center. Phase II will expand the testing to include selected operational airport runways. During Data Source: NTSB Recommendations to FAA and FAA Responses Phase II, data will be obtained, as conditions permit, on snow and slush or ice covered runway conditions. I will keep the Board advised of our significant progress on this long term program.

From: NTSB
To: FAA
Date: 12/14/1983
Response: We are pleased to note that the FAA and NASA have received Congressional funding to conduct a test program to develop means to provide runway braking condition information which has a more quantitative basis than subjective pilot reports. We believe that this test program will provide a valuable step toward satisfying the intent of this recommendation. We would appreciate the opportunity to review any relevant program plans and to participate in such activities. We will classify Safety Recommendation A-82-168 as "Open--Acceptable Action" pending receipt of the results of the FAA/NASA test program.

From: FAA
To: NTSB
Date: 4/1/1983
Response: FAA LETTER: THE FAA AND THE NATIONAL AERONAUTICS AND SPACE ADMINISTRATION (NASA) ARE CURRENTLY FORMULATING A TEST PROGRAM TO BE ACCOMPLISHED BY NASA STARTING IN APRIL 1983. THE CONGRESS HAS ALLOCATED FISCAL YEAR 1983 FUNDING FOR THIS PROGRAM. WE BELIEVE THIS EFFORT WILL FULFILL THE INTENT OF THE BOARD'S RECOMMENDATION, I.E., TO DEVELOP MEANS TO PROVIDE RUNWAY BRAKING CONDITION INFORMATION WHICH HAS A MORE QUANTITATIVE BASIS THAN SUBJECTIVE PILOT REPORTS. WE AGREE WITH THE BOARD'S CLASSIFYING THIS RECOMMENDATION AS CLASS III, LONGER TERM ACTION, SINCE THE TECHNOLOGY REQUIRED TO COMPLY WITH THIS RECOMMENDATION RELIES HEAVILY ON SUCCESSFUL COMPLETION OF THE NASA RESEARCH EFFORT.