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Safety Recommendation Details

Safety Recommendation A-82-163
Details
Synopsis: ON JANUARY 23, 1982, WORLD AIRWAYS, INC., FLIGHT 30H, A MCDONNELL DOUGLAS DC-10-30, WAS A REGULARLY SCHEDULED PASSENGER FLIGHT FROM OAKLAND, CALIFORNIA, TO BOSTON, MASSACHUSETTS, WITH AN EN ROUTE STOP AT NEWARK, NEW JERSEY. FOLLOWING A NONPRECISION INSTRUMENT APPROACH TO RUNWAY 15R AT BOSTON-LOGAN INTERNATIONAL AIRPORT, THE AIRPLANE TOUCHED DOWN ABOUT 2,500 FEET BEYOND THE DISPLACED THRESHOLD OF THE RUNWAY, LEAVING 6,691 FEET REMAINING ON WHICH TO STOP. ABOUT 1936:40, THE AIRPLANE VEERED TO AVOID THE APPROACH LIGHT PIER AT THE DEPARTURE END OF THE RUNWAY AND SLID INTO THE SHALLOW WATER OF BOSTON HARBOR. THE NOSE SECTION SEPARATED FROM THE FORWARD FUSELAGE AFTER THE AIRPLANE DROPPED ONTO THE SHORE EMBANKMENT. OF THE 212 PERSONS ON BOARD, 2 ARE MISSING AND PRESUMED DEAD. THE OTHERS EVACUATED THE AIRPLANE SAFELY, BUT WITH SOME INJURIES. THE REPORTED WEATHER WAS A MEASURED 800-FOOT OVERCAST, 2 1/2 MILE VISIBILITY, LIGHT RAIN AND FOG, TEMPERATURE 35 DEGREES, AND WIND 165 DEGREES AT 3 KNS. THE WET RUNWAY WAS COVERED WITH HARD-PACKED SNOW AND A COATING OF RAIN AND/OR GLAZED ICE.
Recommendation: THE NTSB RECOMMENDS THAT THE FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION: AMEND 14 CFR 25.107, 25.111, AND 25.113 TO REQUIRE THAT MANUFACTURERS OF TRANSPORT CATEGORY AIRPLANES PROVIDE SUFFICIENT DATA FOR OPERATORS TO DETERMINE THE LOWEST DECISION SPEED (V1) FOR AIRPLANE TAKEOFF WEIGHT, AMBIENT CONDITIONS, AND DEPARTURE RUNWAY LENGTH WHICH WILL COMPLY WITH EXISTING TAKEOFF CRITERIA IN THE EVENT OF AN ENGINE POWER LOSS AT OR AFTER REACHING V1. (Supersedes Safety Recommendations A-74-119 through -121 and A-76-136 and -137)
Original recommendation transmittal letter: PDF
Overall Status: Closed - Acceptable Action
Mode: Aviation
Location: BOSTON, MA, United States
Is Reiterated: No
Is Hazmat: No
Is NPRM: No
Accident #: DCA82AA013
Accident Reports: World Airways, Inc., Flight 30H, McDonnell Douglas DC-10-30CF, N113WA
Report #: SIR-83-02
Accident Date: 1/23/1982
Issue Date: 12/23/1982
Date Closed: 10/5/1998
Addressee(s) and Addressee Status: FAA (Closed - Acceptable Action)
Keyword(s):

Safety Recommendation History
From: NTSB
To: FAA
Date: 10/5/1998
Response: A-82-163 ASKED THE FAA TO AMEND 14 CODE OF FEDERAL REGULATIONS (CFR) 25.107,25.111, AND 25,113 TO REQUIRE THAT MANUFACTURERS OF TRANSPORT-CATEGORY AIRPLANES PROVIDE SUFFICIENT DATA FOR OPERATORS TO DETERMINE THE LOWEST DECISION SPEED (V) FOR AIRPLANE TAKEOFF WEIGHT, AMBIENT CONDITIONS, AND DEPARTURE RUNWAY LENGTH, WHICH WILL COMPLY WITH EXISTING TAKEOFF CRITERIA IN THE EVENT OF AN ENGINE POWER LOSS AT OR AFTER REACHING V. BASED ON THESE ACTIONS, A-82-163 AND -164 ARE CLASSIFIED "CLOSED--ACCEPTABLE ACTION."

From: FAA
To: NTSB
Date: 3/10/1998
Response: (Letter Mail Controlled 3/13/98 4:41:48 PM MC# 980328) THE FINAL RULE AMENDS THE METHOD OF DETERMINING THE ACCELERATE-STOP DISTANCE PRESCRIBED IN 14 CFR 25.109, AMENDS 14 CFR 25.105 TO REQUIRE THAT AIRPLANE TAKEOFF PERFORMANCE DATA BE BASED ON WET, ADDITION TO DRY, RUNWAYS; AMENDS 14 CFR 25.1533(A)(3) TO REQUIRE THAT PERFORMANCE INFO ON WET RUNWAYS BE INCLUDED IN THE AIRPLANE FLIGHT MANUAL (AFM); & AMENDS 14 CFR 91.605, 121.189, & 135.379 OF THE OPERATING RULES TO REQUIRE THAT WET RUNWAYS BE TAKEN INTO ACCOUNT WHEN DETERMINING THE RUNWAY LENGTH THAT MUST BE AVAILABLE FOR TAKEOFF IF WET RUNWAY PERFORMANCE INFO EXISTS IN THE AFM. THE WET RUNWAY PERFORMANCE INFO WILL INCLUDE THE V SPEED SPEED APPROPRIATE FOR USE UNDER THE CONDITIONS OF REDUCED BRAKING EFFECTIVENESS ASSOCIATION WITH WET RUNWAYS.

From: NTSB
To: FAA
Date: 3/21/1996
Response: THE BOARD NOTES THAT THE FAA ISSUED A NOTICE OF PROPOSED RULEMAKING IN JULY 1993 ON THIS SUBJECT & THAT PUBLIC RESPONSE TO PROPOSED METHOD FOR DETERMINING WET RUNWAY ACCELERATE-STOP DISTANCES WAS ESPECIALLY CONTENTIOUS. HOWEVER, IN MAY 1995, THE AEROSPACE INDUSTRIES ASSOCIATION OF AMERICA PROPOSED A DIFFERENT METHODOLOGY FOR DETERMINING SUCH DISTANCES, WHICH THE FAA HAS DECIDED IS ACCEPTABLE. THEREFORE, PENDING ADOPTION OF THE FINAL RULE STEMMING FROM THIS PROPOSAL, THE BOARD CLASSFIES A-82-163 & -164 "OPEN--ACCEPTABLE RESPONSE."

From: FAA
To: NTSB
Date: 12/21/1995
Response: IN A LETTER 12/21/95, THE FAA STATED THAT ITS JULY, 1993, NPRM ON ACCELERATE-STOP DISTANCES FOR CONTAMINATED RUNWAYS RECEIVED CONSIDERABLE PUBLIC RESPONSE, SOME OF IT CONTENTIOUS. THE AEROSPACE INDUSTRIES ASSOCIATION OF AMERICAN HAS PROPOSED A DIFFERENT METHOD OF FIGURING SUCH DISTANCES THAT THE FAA IS NOW EVALUATING.

From: NTSB
To: FAA
Date: 5/4/1993
Response: THE BOARD NOTES THAT THE FAA REVISED NOTICE OF PROPOSED RULEMAKING NOTICE 87-13 IN 1991 TO INCLUDE REJECTED TAKEOFF SAFETY ENHANCEMENTS & REISSUED IT AS NOTICE 87-13A. SINCE THEN, HOWEVER, THE FAA HAS REVIEWED THE TAKEOFF AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS, INCLUDING THE EFFECT OF SLIPPERY RUNWAYS, & HAS DECIDED TO WITHDRAW NOTICE 87-13A & ISSUE A NEW PROPOSAL. THE PROPOSED ADVISORY CIRCULAR 91-5B, PERFORMANCE INFORMATION FOR OPERATION WITH WATER, SLUSH, SNOW, OR ICE ON THE RUNWAY, & AC 120-XX, TAKEOFF SAFETY TRAINING AID, ARE POSITIVE INITIATIVES IN ADDRESSING THE ISSUE OF REDUCED V1 SPEEDS. PENDING FURTHER INFO CONCERNING THE NEW PROPOSED REGULATORY CHANGE, THE BOARD CLASSIFIES A-82-163 & -164 "OPEN--ACCEPTABLE RESPONSE."

From: FAA
To: NTSB
Date: 3/2/1993
Response: IN OCTOBER 1989, THE FAA ESTABLISHED AN INDUSTRY/FAA TASK FORCE TO STUDY REJECTED TAKEOFF SAFETY ENCHANCEMENTS. THIS TASK FORCE RECOMMEDED THAT NOTICE OF PROPOSED RULEMAKING NOTICE 87-13 BE REVISED AND, IN 1991, NOTICE 87-13 WAS REVISED AS NOTICE 87-13A. SINCE THE PUBLICATION OF A REVIEW OF THE TAKEOFF AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS, INCLUDING THE EFFECT OF SLIPPERY RUNWAYS. AS A RESULT, THE FAA HAS DECIDED TO WITHDRAW NOTICE 87-13A AND TO ISSUE A NEW PROPOSAL TO ADDRESS REJECTED TAKEOFFS ON WET RUNWAYS. THIS NEW PROPOSAL, IF ADOPTED, WOULD ALSO CONTAIN METHODOLOGY TO REDUCE V1 BY ALLOWING A REDUCED HEIGHT OVER THE END OF THE RUNWAY FOR A CONTINUED TAKEOFF. THIS REDUCED V1 METHODOLOGY WOULD MAKE MORE RUNWAY LENGTH AVAILABLE FOR STOPPING ON A SLIPPERY RUNWAY.

From: NTSB
To: FAA
Date: 5/2/1991
Response: The Safety Board notes that the FAA established an industry/FAA task force to study rejected takeoff safety enhancements. This task force recommended the mandatory use of the wet runway takeoff data of Notice 87-13 and additional standards which will provide for approval of a reduced decision speed methodology for takeoff on wet and contaminated runways. Based on the FAA decision to revise Notice 87-13 to incorporate the task force recommendations and the simultaneous issuance of companion Advisory Circular 91-6B, the Safety Board classifies Safety Recommendations A-82-163 and -164 as "Open--Acceptable Response." The Safety Board awaits notification of issuance of revised Notice 87-13 and Advisory Circular 91-6B.

From: FAA
To: NTSB
Date: 2/22/1991
Response: IN OCTOBER 1989, THE FAA ESTABLISHED AN INDUSTRY/FAA TASK FORCE TO STUDY REJECTED TAKEOFF SAFETY ENHANCEMENTS. IN MARCH 1990, THE TASK FORCE FORMULATED ITS FINAL RECOMMENDATIONS. INCLUDED IN THESE RECOMMENDATIONS, IS THE MANDATORY USE OF THE WET RUNWAY TAKEOFF DATA OF NOTICE 87-13 ON A RETROACTIVE BASIS. NOTICE 87-13 PROPOSES TO ADD NEW STANDARDS WHICH WOULD PROVIDE FOR APPROVAL OF A REDUCED DECISION SPEED METHODOLOGY FOR TAKEOFF ON WET AND CONTAMINATED RUNWAYS. BASED ON THIS, THE FAA HAS DECIDED TO REVISE NOTICE 87-13 TO INCORPORATE THE TASK FORCE RECOMMENDATIONS. THIS REVISED NOTICE WILL BE PUBLISHED IN THE FEDERAL REGISTER FOR PUBLIC COMMENT. COMPANION ADVISORY CIRCULAR 91-6B IN RESPONSE TO RECOMMENDATION A-82-164 WILL BE ISSUED SIMULTANEOUSLY WITH THE ADOPTION OF THE NOTICE.

From: NTSB
To: FAA
Date: 9/28/1990
Response: The National Transportation Safety Board has reviewed the FAA further response to Recommendations A-82-163 and -164 concerning amendments to 14 Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) Parts 25, 121, and 135 with respect to decision speeds (V1) for takeoff in the event of engine power loss and other criteria. The Safety Board notes that the FAA continues to work toward implementation of the safety Data Source: NTSB Recommendations to FAA and FAA Responses recommendations, but that the final rule anticipated for early 1990 may be delayed while the FAA considers inclusion of wet runway criteria. The Safety Board believes that consideration of this subject is most appropriate. Pending further information, Safety Recommendations A-82-163 and -164 remain classified as "Open--Acceptable Response."

From: FAA
To: NTSB
Date: 6/25/1990
Response: (SUMMARIZED) THE FAA IS CONTINUING ITS EFFORTS TO IMPLEMENT THESE SAFETY RECOMMENDATIONS, HOWEVER, THIS HAS BEEN POSTPONED TO CONSIDER THE FINDINGS OF AN INDUSTRY/FAA TASK FORCE. INCLUDED ARE RECOMMENDATIONS REGARDING MANDATORY USE OF WET RUNWAY TAKEOFF DATA. I WILL PROVIDE THE BOARD WITH A COPY OF ANY DOCUMENT THAT MAY BE ISSUED.

From: NTSB
To: FAA
Date: 9/28/1989
Response: The National Transportation Safety Board has reviewed the FAA further response to Recommendations A-82-163 and -164, concerning amendments to 14 Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) Parts 25, 121, and 135 with respect to decision speeds (V1) for takeoff in the event of engine power loss and other criteria. The Safety Board notes that the FAA continues to work toward implementation of the safety recommendations through rulemaking action and that a final rule is anticipated for early 1990. This report on the status of implementation is appreciated. Pending further information, Safety Recommendations A-82-163 and -164 remain classified as "Open--Acceptable Action."

From: FAA
To: NTSB
Date: 8/11/1989
Response: (SUMMARIZED) THE FAA IS CONTINUING ITS EFFORTS TO ISSUE A FINAL REGULATORY DOCUMENT IN RESPONSE TO THESE SAFETY RECOMMENDATIONS. THE FAA HAS COMPLETED ITS REVIEW OF THE COMMENTS RECEIVED AS A RESULT OF THE NPRM TO AMEND 14 CFR PARTS 25, 121, AND 135 TO ADD NEW STANDARDS FOR TRANSPORT CATEGORY AIRPLANES. IF ADOPTED, THESE STANDARDS WOULD PROVIDE FOR APPROVAL OF A REDUCED TAKEOFF DECISION SPEED (V1) METHODOLOGY FOR TAKEOFF ON WET AND CONTAMINATED RUNWAYS. THE FAA ANTICIPATES THAT THE FINAL REGULATORY DOCUMENT WILL BE ISSUED IN EARLY 1990. COMPANION ADVISORY CIRCULAR 91-6B WILL BE ISSUED SIMULTANEOUSLY WITH THE FINAL RULE.

From: NTSB
To: FAA
Date: 3/29/1989
Response: Safety Recommendation A-82-163 and -164 are 2 of 18 recommendations issued by the Safety Board as result of an accident involving World Airways, Inc., Flight 30H, N113WA, a McDonnell Douglas DC-10-30 at Boston, Massachusetts, on January 23, 1982, that remain in an open status. The FAA's response of January 14, 1988, indicated that rulemaking action was underway to resolve these recommendations. We request a progress report. These recommendations remain in an "Open--Acceptable Action" status.

From: NTSB
To: FAA
Date: 4/1/1988
Response: Unlike the runway length requirements for landing which include an arbitrary safety factor for aircraft operated under CFR 121 and 14 CFR 135 to compensate for pilot performance as well as aircraft performance variations on both dry and wet runways, the runway length requirements for takeoff do not account for either pilot or aircraft performance degradation regardless of runway conditions. Thus, it is widely recognized that the potential for an accident is high if a takeoff is rejected as the aircraft approaches the no go - go decision speed (V1). There is little doubt that the rarity of such accidents is attributable to the infrequency of engine or tire failure occurrences combined with near maximum gross weight operations on contaminated runways. However, the Safety Board does not believe that the probability of this combination of circumstances can be ignored. Thus, the Safety Board continues to advocate that an additional stopping distance margin be considered, along with the increased acceleration distance required because of retardation factors, when determining the maximum allowable takeoff weight and the associated V1 speed for all takeoffs on runways with standing water, slush, snow or ice contamination. This additional safety margin would necessarily require a reduction in the aircraft's maximum allowable gross weight for takeoff from a given runway when the surface is contaminated in order to maintain the existing required accelerate-go safety criteria, i.e., a 35 foot end-of-runway crossing height. The Safety Board views a required weight reduction under these conditions to be the only totally acceptable solution. However, Safety Recommendations A-82-163 and -164 recognize that, on many takeoffs, the aircraft is not operating at its maximum allowable gross weight and that, under these conditions, safety can be enhanced by providing the lowest possible V1 speed at which the takeoff could be continued safely. The procedures proposed in NPRM 87-13 go a step further and permit the pilot to determine a lower V1 speed from which continuation of takeoff with an engine inoperative would result in the airplane reaching a height of 15 feet instead of 35 feet at the end of the takeoff distance with the provision that the presently required clearance from obstacles beyond the point at which the airplane reaches 35 feet can be maintained. The Board interprets the proposed rule to mean that the takeoff performance data for calculating a reduced V1 speed will be provided for takeoff conditions whether or not a reduction in the maximum allowable takeoff weight is required to meet the obstacle clearance constraint. Since the use of this procedure requires consideration for the effect of surface contamination on acceleration performance and provides for longer stopping distance in the event of a rejected takeoff at V1 speed, the Board believes that it is an improvement over present procedures and should be a required, rather than an optional, procedure even when reduced maximum takeoff weight limitations are imposed. With this reservation, the Safety Board believes that the proposed rule will meet the intent of Safety Recommendations A-82-163 and -164 which will be held "Open--Acceptable Action" Data Source: NTSB Recommendations to FAA and FAA Responses pending further rulemaking action.

From: NTSB
To: FAA
Date: 2/8/1988
Response: The Safety Board is examining NPRM (Docket No. 25471; Notice No. 87-13) with the comment period ending March 30, 1988. We note that this NPRM proposes to amend 14 CFR Parts 25, 121, and 135 to add new standards for transport category airplanes which would provide for approval of a reduced takeoff decision speed (V1) methodology for takeoff on wet and contaminated runways. Pending our review of the NPRM and the adoption of appropriate regulations, this recommendation is classified as "Open--Acceptable Action." Your efforts to improve aviation safety are appreciated.

From: FAA
To: NTSB
Date: 1/14/1988
Response: THE FAA HAS ISSUED A NPRM (DOCKET NO. 25471; NOTICE NO. 87-13) WITH A COMMENT PERIOD ENDING 3/30/88. THE NPRM PROPOSES TO AMEND 14 CFR PARTS 25, 121, AND 135 TO ADD NEW STANDARDS FOR TRANSPORT CATEGORY AIRPLANES WHICH WOULD PROVIDE FOR APPROVAL OF A REDUCED TAKEOFF DECISION SPEED (VI) METHODOLOGY FOR TAKEOFF ON WET AND CONTAMINATED RUNWAYS. I HAVE ENCLOSED A COPY OF THE NPRM FOR THE BOARD'S INFORMA TION.

From: NTSB
To: FAA
Date: 5/20/1987
Response: The Safety Board is pleased to learn that the FAA is preparing a Notice of Proposed Rulemaking (NPRM) to amend Parts 25, 121, and 135 to add new standards which would provide for approval of a reduced decision speed (V1) methodology for takeoff on wet and contaminated runways. Pending our review of the NPRM and the adoption of appropriate regulations, this recommendation is classified as "Open--Acceptable Action."

From: FAA
To: NTSB
Date: 3/3/1987
Response: THE FAA IS IN THE PROCESS OF ISSUING AN NPRM TO AMEND 14 CFR 25, 121, AND 135 TO ADD NEW STANDARDS WHICH WOULD PROVIDE FOR APPROVAL OF REDUCED DECISION SPEED (VI) METHODOLOGY FOR TAKEOFF ON WET AND CONTAMINATED RUNWAYS.

From: NTSB
To: FAA
Date: 3/25/1986
Response: The Safety Board is pleased to learn that the FAA is preparing a Notice of Proposed Rulemaking (NPRM) in response to the Aviation/Industry Landing and Takeoff Performance Task Group's review of the FAA's technical report on takeoff and accelerate-stop performance requirements. The amendment of 14 CFR 25.121 and 14 CFR 25.135 to add new standards which would provide for approval of a reduced decision speed (V1) methodology for takeoff on wet and contaminated runways would comply with the intent of this recommendation. Pending the Safety Board's review of the proposed NPRM and the ultimate adoption of appropriate regulations, Safety Recommendation A-82-163 has been classified as "Open--Acceptable Action."

From: FAA
To: NTSB
Date: 2/26/1986
Response: AS NOTED IN THE FAA'S LETTER DATED 1/4/84, THE AVIATION/ INDUSTRY LANDING AND TAKEOFF PERFORMANCE TASK GROUP HAS REVIEWED THE FAA'S TECHNICAL REPORT ON TAKEOFF AND ACCELERATE STOP PERFORMANCE REQUIREMENTS. A RESPONSE FROM THE TASK GROUP HAS BEEN RECEIVED AND HAS BEEN REVIEWED BY THE FAA. AS A RESULT, A NPRM IS BEING PREPARED. THE NPRM WILL PROPOSE TO AMEND 14 CFR 25.121 AND 14 CFR 25.135 TO ADD NEW STANDARDS WHICH WOULD PROVIDE FOR APPROVAL OF A REDUCED DECISION SPEED (V1) METHODOLOGY FOR TAKEOFF ON WET AND CONTAMINATED RUNWAYS.

From: NTSB
To: FAA
Date: 12/14/1983
Response: We are aware that the general subject of reduced decision speed, V1, was discussed during the Transport Airplane Takeoff Performance Requirements Conference. In fact, our staff participated in that conference. As indicated in our evaluation of Safety Recommendations A-82-155 and -169 we agree with the concept of a task group review of the conference material. However, we would like added assurance that the Joint Aviation/Industry Landing and Takeoff Performance Task Group has a definitive program which will result in a requirement to provide to pilots the takeoff and landing performance data referred to in Safety Recommendations A-82-163 through -165. We continue to believe that the subject performance data could be developed for the current fleet of transport aircraft without significant resource expenditure by the manufactures, and that it should be made a regulatory requirement. We will classify Safety Recommendations A-82-163 through -165 as "Open--Unacceptable Action" pending further indication of FAA actions.

From: FAA
To: NTSB
Date: 4/1/1983
Response: FAA LETTER: THE GENERAL SUBJECT OF REDUCED DECISION SPEED, V1, WAS DISCUSSED DURING THE TRANSPORT AIRPLANE TAKEOFF PERFORMANCE REQUIREMENTS CONFERENCE. RESULTS OF THE CONFERENCE ARE UNDER REVIEW BY BOTH FAA AND THE JOINT AVIATION/INDUSTRY LANDING AND TAKEOFF PERFORMANCE TASK GROUP. WE WILL FURTHER RESPOND TO THESE RECOMMENDATIONS WHEN WE HAVE COMPLETED OUR REVIEW OF THE COMMENTS AND RECOMMENDATIONS DEVELOPED BY THE TASK GROUP.