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General Aviation Safety
On March 5, 2015, at 1102 eastern standard time, Delta Air Lines flight 1086, a Boeing MD-88, N909DL, was landing on runway 13 at LaGuardia Airport (LGA), New York, New York, when it departed the left side of the runway, contacted the airport perimeter fence, and came to rest with the airplane’s nose on an embankment next to Flushing Bay. The 2 pilots, 3 flight attendants, and 98 of the 127 passengers were not injured; the other 29 passengers received minor injuries. The airplane was substantially damaged. Flight 1086 was a regularly scheduled passenger flight from Hartsfield-Jackson Atlanta International Airport, Atlanta, Georgia, operating under the provisions of 14 Code of Federal Regulations Part 121. An instrument flight rules flight plan had been filed. Instrument meteorological conditions prevailed at the time of the accident.
TO THE FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION: Continue to work with industry to develop the technology to outfit transport-category airplanes with equipment and procedures to routinely calculate, record, and convey the airplane braking ability required and/or available to slow or stop the airplane during the landing roll. (Safety Recommendations A-16-023 and A-16-024 supersede Safety Recommendation A-07-064)
Original recommendation transmittal letter:
Closed - Acceptable Action
New York, NY, United States
Runway Excursion During Landing Delta Air Lines Flight 1086 Boeing MD-88, N909DL, New York, New York March 5, 2015
Addressee(s) and Addressee Status:
FAA (Closed - Acceptable Action)
Safety Recommendation History
You reported that, in May 2016, you completed research with industry on developing airplane equipment technology and procedures to calculate, record, and convey an airplane’s braking ability from data typically available on transport airplanes. We note that you are currently considering two designs for certification that would provide timely information to the flight crew in the event of lower-than-expected braking action, but that both systems would require the flight crew to pass this information on to ATC via pilot or braking action reports. Although airplane equipment technology and procedures to calculate, record, and convey braking capability during a landing roll are currently viable and certifiable, you determined that further development is needed to be able to automatically send airplane generated braking action information to airport operational personnel or airline operations centers. We believe that your actions satisfy the intent of Safety Recommendation A 16-23, which is classified CLOSED--ACCEPTABLE ACTION.
-From Daniel K. Elwell, Acting Administrator: As previously stated in our letter dated December 23. 2016, the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) completed research work with industry regarding the development of technology for airplane equipment and procedures to calculate. record. And convey the airplane braking capability experienced during the landing roll. The non-proprietary final reports of this research are enclosed with this letter. While working with industry on this recommendation. the FAA also considered the Board’s Safety Recommendation A- 16-24 to develop procedures to readily convey and easily interpret airplane-based braking ability results. Two system designs currently under consideration for certification include a flight crew display and conform to Title 14 Code of Federal Regulations Part 25. 1302, Installed systems and equipment for use by the flight crew. Both systems calculate braking performance using the standard terminology introduced with Takeoff and Landing Performance Assessment (TA LPA) reporting standards. which was also utilized throughout our research with industry discussed above, and will be incorporated worldwide through the International Civil Aviation Organization’s (ICAO) Global Reporting format. Both of these system designs provide timely information to the flight crew when experiencing lower-than-expected braking action. The flight crew is then responsible for passing this information on to air traffic control via a pi lot report of braking act ion, with the condition description confom1ing lo current TALPA/ ICAO recommendations. In both the completed research. and in the system designs under consideration. wheel braking coefficients used to assign the level of braking action follow the guidance of Advisory Circular 25-32, Landing Performance Data for Time-of-Arrival Landing Performance Assessments. Although our research with industry considered automatic methods of passing airplane-generated braking action information to airport operational personnel and/or airline operations centers. We determined that functionality requires further refinement Therefore. we conclude the most viable method of passing this information to other airplanes and end users continues to be relying on pilots reporting braking actions to air traffic control, who then broadcasts the information, as appropriate. The FAA determined the technology for airplane equipment and procedures to calculate. record. and convey the airplane braking capability experienced during the landing roll is now developed to the point that it is viable and certifiable, and therefore we concluded our research funding. We also determined that we will not mandate this techno logy due to cost limitations, but that applicants are able to implement this technology in current airplane designs and operations. Based on the completion of the research and actions necessary to develop the technology discussed above, I believe that the FAA has effectively addressed this safety recommendation and we consider our actions complete.
We note that, in May 2016, you completed a research program initiated in 2013 regarding practical ways of using existing technology to derive an airplane’s braking ability from data typically available on transport airplanes. We further note that you are reviewing draft final reports on this research, and that you are working with industry on two different certification projects that, if successful, will provide the flight crew with designs that convey information regarding friction limited braking action experienced during the landing roll. Please send us copies of the final research reports once you complete your review. Until then, Safety Recommendation A-16-23 is classified OPEN--ACCEPTABLE RESPONSE. We ask that you consider Safety Recommendation A-16-24 as you work on the designs that will provide friction-limited braking action information to flight crews; specifically, we believe the certificated systems should provide results that can be readily conveyed to and interpreted by the flight crews of airplanes arriving shortly after the landing airplane, airports, and air traffic controllers. Pending consideration of those issues in the two certification projects, Safety Recommendation A-16-24 is classified “Open—Acceptable Response.”
-From Michael P. Huerta, Administrator: In 2013, we initiated research on practical methods utilizing existing technology to derive airplane braking ability from data typically available on transport airplanes. We completed this research and received final internal reports in May 20 16. We are currently evaluating these reports to determine the effectiveness of the existing technologies and the best course of act ion for their use. We are also working with industry on two different certification projects that. if successful. \Viii provide designs conveying information to the flight crew regarding friction limited braking action experienced during the landing roll. If. and once, the systems described in Safety Recommendation A-J 6-23 are shown to be technically and operationally feasible, we will evaluate the effectiveness of these existing technologies and the best course of action for their use.
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