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Safety Recommendation Details

Safety Recommendation A-07-063
Details
Synopsis: On December 8, 2005, about 1914 central standard time, Southwest Airlines (SWA) flight 1248, a Boeing 737-7H4, N471WN, ran off the departure end of runway 31C after landing at Chicago Midway International Airport (MDW), Chicago, Illinois. The airplane rolled through a blast fence, an airport perimeter fence, and onto an adjacent roadway, where it struck an automobile before coming to a stop. A child in the automobile was killed, one automobile occupant received serious injuries, and three other automobile occupants received minor injuries. Eighteen of the 103 airplane occupants (98 passengers, 3 flight attendants, and 2 pilots) received minor injuries, and the airplane was substantially damaged. The airplane was being operated under the provisions of 14 Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) Part 121 and had departed from Baltimore/Washington International Thurgood Marshall Airport, Baltimore, Maryland, about 1758 eastern standard time. Instrument meteorological conditions prevailed at the time of the accident flight, which operated on an instrument flight rules flight plan.
Recommendation: TO THE FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION: Establish a minimum standard for 14 Code of Federal Regulations Part 121 and 135 operators to use in correlating an airplane’s braking ability to braking action reports and runway contaminant type and depth reports for runway surface conditions worse than bare and dry.
Original recommendation transmittal letter: PDF
Overall Status: Closed - Acceptable Action
Mode: Aviation
Location: Chicago, IL, United States
Is Reiterated: No
Is Hazmat: No
Is NPRM: No
Accident #: DCA06MA009
Accident Reports: Runway Overrun and Collision Southwest Airlines Flight 1248 Boeing 737-74H, N471WN
Report #: AAR-07-06
Accident Date: 12/8/2005
Issue Date: 10/16/2007
Date Closed: 3/27/2017
Addressee(s) and Addressee Status: FAA (Closed - Acceptable Action)
Keyword(s): Runway Safety

Safety Recommendation History
From: NTSB
To: FAA
Date: 3/27/2017
Response: We have previously indicated that requiring all Part 139-certified airports to use the Runway Condition Assessment Matrix (RCAM), developed by your TALPA aviation rulemaking committee, when reporting runway conditions would satisfy this recommendation. As of October 1, 2016, airport operators are using RCAM to categorize runway conditions, and pilots use it to interpret reported runway conditions. RCAM is presented in a standardized format, based on airplane performance data supplied by airplane manufacturers, for each of the stated contaminant types and depths. Implementation of the RCAM satisfies Safety Recommendation A-07-63, which is classified CLOSED--ACCEPTABLE ACTION.

From: NTSB
To: FAA
Date: 10/6/2016
Response: From the NTSB aviation accident report AAR-16-02: Runway Excursion During Landing Boeing MD-88, N909DL New York, New York March 5, 2015, issued on October 6, 2016, notation 8780: On October 16, 2007, the NTSB issued Safety Recommendations A-07-63 and -64 as a result of the December 2005 accident involving Southwest Airlines flight 1248 (discussed in section 1.10.2). The safety recommendations asked the FAA to do the following: Establish a minimum standard for 14 Code of Federal Regulations Part 121 and 135 operators to use in correlating an airplane’s braking ability to braking action reports and runway contaminant type and depth reports for runway surface conditions worse than bare and dry. (A-07-63) Demonstrate the technical and operational feasibility of outfitting transport-category airplanes with equipment and procedures required to routinely calculate, record, and convey the airplane braking ability required and/or available to slow or stop the airplane during the landing roll. If feasible, require operators of transport-category airplanes to incorporate use of such equipment and related procedures into their operations. (A-07-64) Regarding A-07-63, on October 28, 2014, the FAA stated that, as a result of the TALPA ARC recommendations, many document changes would be forthcoming. For example, the FAA planned to incorporate the information from SAFO 06012, “Landing Performance Assessments at Time of Arrival (Turbojets),” which was issued on August 31, 2006, into several ACs, the Aeronautical Information Manual, NOTAMs, and ATC and airport guidance and manuals by October 2016. In addition, the FAA stated that it was developing the RCAM tool. The FAA indicated that the RCAM “takes a known assessment criteria provided from the airport and provides the pilot with a downgrade assessment criterion,” which would be based on the reported runway conditions, including the reported runway friction (expressed as a Mu value) and the reported braking action. The FAA also indicated that this information would provide a pilot with an expected braking ability to slow or stop the airplane during the landing roll. On February 10, 2015, the NTSB noted that the development and testing of the RCAM was nearing completion and that, during a December 2014, teleconference, the FAA indicated its intention to mandate the use of the RCAM once completed. Safety Recommendation A-07-63 remained classified OPEN—ACCEPTABLE RESPONSE pending completion of the RCAM and the requirement for its use by all appropriate airports and operators. As previously stated, on June 9, 2016, the FAA held an industry-wide rollout for the TALPA program. The NTSB notes that the information provided at the briefing regarding the development and planned use of the RCAM would address the requested action in Safety Recommendation A-07-63.

From: NTSB
To: FAA
Date: 3/4/2015
Response: The National Transportation Safety Board (NTSB) has reviewed the Federal Aviation Administration’s (FAA) draft Advisory Circulars (AC) 25-X, “Takeoff Performance Data for Operations on Contaminated Runways,” and AC 25-X, “Landing Performance Data for Time-of-Arrival Landing Performance Assessments,” which were posted for comment on the FAA’s website on January 21, 2015. Both of these draft ACs provide guidance and standardized methods that data providers, such as type certificate (TC) holders, supplemental type certificate (STC) holders, applicants, and airplane operators can use when developing performance data for transport category airplanes for operations on contaminated runways. The AC also promotes the use of consistent terminology for runway surface conditions used among data providers and FAA personnel. The NTSB has investigated several accidents within the last 10 years that involve issues addressed by these ACs. As a result of these investigations, the NTSB issued Safety Recommendations A 07 57 through 64, A 08 17, A 08 41 through 43, and A 11 28 and 29.

From: NTSB
To: FAA
Date: 2/10/2015
Response: Your recent letter repeated much of the information contained in your May 9, 2014, letter regarding products that calculate and convey an airplane’s braking ability required and available during the landing roll. On July 24, 2014, we wrote about our concern that, even when the types of systems described become widely available and operators have equipped their fleets, the improved runway condition data from the systems will still not be available to all organizations and pilots who have a need for it. We asked that you tell us how this information will be made available to others if the equipment is installed voluntarily, rather than required. Your current letter also discusses the Runway Condition Assessment Matrix tool (RCAM). The RCAM uses assessment criteria provided by an airport, such as reported runway friction expressed in mu (µ) values and reported braking action, to provide the pilot with the expected braking ability during the landing roll. The RCAM, which was initially developed as part of the work of the TALPA ARC, and has been under development and testing for the past few years, is nearing completion. We were encouraged to learn, during the December 16, 2014, teleconference, that you intend to mandate usage of the RCAM when it is completed. Pending completion of the RCAM and your requiring its use by all relevant airports and operators, Safety Recommendation A-07-63 remains classified OPEN—ACCEPTABLE RESPONSE.

From: FAA
To: NTSB
Date: 10/28/2014
Response: -From Michael P. Huerta, Administrator: In its December I 6, 2013, letter, the Board recognized that the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) will be addressing the Takeoff and Landing Performance Assessment (TALPA) Aviation Rulemaking Committee (ARC) recommendations through non-regulatory means as an interim response. Currently, certain aircraft manufacturers offer products that calculate and convey airplane braking ability required and/or available to slow or stop the airplane during the landing roll. For example, Airbus offers the Runway Overrun Prevention System (ROPS) to help prevent runway overruns. Airbus decided not to keep its patented ROPS as a product differentiator and plans to release it to competing aircraft builders. Other manufacturers are developing programs that would report braking action to the air carriers' dispatch centers. One airline utilizes Aviation Safety Technologie's (AST's) SafeLand software system, which monitors and measures aircraft systems in real time to display three dimensional aircraft simulation from landing to ground movements. This information is then sent to home base via the Aircraft Communications Addressing and Reporting System. The AST's algorithm can deliver normalized braking reports as well as runway braking and cornering coefficients. This information will then be shared with aircraft crew members prior to their arrival and can be used to determine real -time braking performance. The FAA encourages the use of such programs and products on a voluntary basis, and we are no longer considering rulemaking related to TALPA or regulating performance data. The FAA does not see a need to conduct a research project on their feasibility because these systems are becoming commercially available. However, as a result of the TALPA ARC recommendations, many document changes will be forth coming, including changes to much of the information currently contained in Safety Alert for Operators (SAFO) 060 12, with an expected target completion elate of October 2016. We plan to incorporate information contained in SAFO 060 12 into the following documents: • Advisory Circulars; • Aeronautical Information Manual; • Notices to Airmen; • Air Traffic Control guidance and manuals; and • Airport guidance and manuals. In addition to the creation of documents and document changes, we are developing the Runway Condition Assessment Matrix (RCAM) tool. The RCAM takes a known assessment criteria provided from the airport and provides the pilot with a downgrade assessment criterion. This downgrade assessment criterion is based on the reported runway conditions, such as the reported runway friction expressed in mu (m) values and reported braking action. This information will provide the pilot with an expected braking ability to slow or stop the airplane during the landing roll. The RCAM is still under final development and the procedures required to use this matrix have not yet been addressed. I will keep the Board informed of the FAA's progress on these safety recommendations and provide an update by January 31, 2016.

From: NTSB
To: FAA
Date: 12/16/2013
Response: We are aware that, in mid-2009, the FAA received the recommendations of its TALPA ARC, but that the agency’s planned rulemaking in response to those recommendations has been delayed because the FAA has been forced to reallocate resources needed to develop the regulations to rulemaking projects that Congress mandated under the Airline Safety and Federal Aviation Administration Extension Act of 2010 (Public Law [PL] 111-216) and the FAA Modernization and Reform Act of 2012 (PL 112-95). Currently, the FAA is developing a program to implement the TALPA ARC recommendations through non-regulatory means. We acknowledge the resource issues created by PL 111-216 and PL 112 95 that impact full implementation of our safety recommendations. Although the details of the FAA’s program for implementing the TALPA ARC recommendations through non-regulatory means are not yet available for our review, these initiatives may constitute effective interim responses until the needed regulatory reforms can be completed. Accordingly, pending the FAA’s completing the actions recommended, Safety Recommendations A-07-58, -59, -63, and A-08-41 remain classified OPEN—ACCEPTABLE RESPONSE.

From: FAA
To: NTSB
Date: 9/6/2013
Response: -From Michael P. Huerta, Administrator: The Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) received the Takeoff and Landing Performance Assessment (TALPA) Aviation Rulemaking Committee (ARC) recommendations for landing performance assessments in April 2009 and for contaminated runway takeoff performance in July 2009. The TALPA ARC recommended comprehensive changes to aircraft certification rules in parts 23, 25, and 26; operating rules in parts 1, 91, 121, 125, and 135; airport rules in part 139; as well as FAA internal air traffic control procedures and orders. Rulemaking activity related to these ARC recommendations has been delayed to allocate resources to rulemaking projects mandated under the Airline Safety and Federal Aviation Administration Extension Act of2010 (Public Law 111 -216) and the FAA Modernization and Reform Act of2012 (Public Law 112-95). However, the FAA is developing a comprehensive program to support implementation of the TALPA ARC recommendations through appropriate non-regulatory activity. After extensive testing, which continued into the winter season of 20 1 0 and 2011, the FAA is working to review and analyze the data related to the Runway Surface Condition Reporting Matrix that was developed by the ARC for assessing and reporting runway surface conditions. This matrix provides a common language for all users of runway surface condition information and is the cornerstone to most of the TALPA ARC recommendations. The matrix is the first necessary step in development of associated rule and policy changes. Completing this matrix and revising Safety Alert for Operators 06012, Landing Performance Assessments at Time of Arrival (Turbojets), would be part of our comprehensive program. Approval of this program is anticipated in the near future. Specific content of this program is not available because final approval is not yet complete. I will keep the Board informed of the FAA's progress on these safety recommendations and provide an update by June 2014.

From: NTSB
To: FAA
Date: 1/31/2011
Response: The FAA indicated that it is currently evaluating the recommendations n1ade by the Take Off and Landing Performance Assessn1ent (TALPA) Aviation Rulemaking Committee (ARC). The NTSB notes that the FAA is also working with 10 airports and 2 air carriers to validate the accuracy and usability of the Runway Surface Condition Reporting Matrix that was developed by the TALPA ARC for assessing and reporting runway surface conditions. The FAA's efforts to address Safety Recommendations A-07-61, A-07-63, and A-08-41 are responsive; however, the NTSB encourages the FAA to initiate and complete rulemaking in a timely manner in response to the ARC's recon11nendations. In addition, the NTSB requests that the FAA document the specific actions taken to address Safety Recon1mendations A-07-58 through -60 and -64. Pending our receipt and review of this information, and the FAA's prompt action to address these recommendations, Safety Recon1n1endations A-07-58 through -61, -63, -64, and A-08-41 remain classified OPEN – ACCEPTABLE RESPONSE.

From: FAA
To: NTSB
Date: 8/23/2010
Response: MC# 201000343: - From J. Randolph Babbitt, Administrator: The Federal Aviation Administration received the Take Off and Landing Performance Assessment (TALPA) Aviation Rulemaking Committee's (ARC) recommendations for landing performance assessment in April 2009 and for contaminated runway takeoff performance in July 2009. The FAA is evaluating the ARC recommendations and intends to initiate rulemaking in 2011. In the interim, the FAA in cooperation with ten airports and two air carriers is in the process of validating the accuracy and usability of the Runway Surface Condition Reporting Matrix that was developed by the ARC for assessing and reporting runway surface conditions. This matrix forms the cornerstone to many of the recommendations put forth by the TALPA. The FAA also continues to encourage operators to incorporate the safety elements contained in Safety Alert for Operators 06012 pending the completion of the rulemaking process. I will keep the Board informed of the FAA's progress on these safety recommendations and provide an updated response by January 2011.

From: NTSB
To: FAA
Date: 6/13/2008
Response: On December 6, 2007, the FAA issued a notice announcing the formation of an aviation rulemaking committee (ARC) to review regulations affecting certification and operation of airplanes and airports for takeoff and landing operations on contaminated runways. The following items are among those for which the FAA has tasked the ARC to provide advice and recommendations: ·Establishment of airplane certification and operational requirements (including training) for takeoff and landing operations on contaminated runways ·Establishment of landing distance assessment requirements, including minimum landing distance safety margins, to be performed at the time of arrival ·Establishment of standards for runway surface condition reporting and minimum surface conditions for continued operations Formation of the ARC with the specific tasks described is a responsive first step. Pending the FAA’s taking the recommended actions, Safety Recommendations A-07-59, -62, and -63 are classified OPEN -- ACCEPTABLE RESPONSE. Safety Recommendation A-07-61 is addressed and classified as Open Acceptable Response in the Safety Board’s report on the runway overrun accident involving Shuttle America flight 6448, which was presented at a public Board Meeting on April 15, 2008.

From: FAA
To: NTSB
Date: 1/8/2008
Response: Letter Mail Controlled 1/14/2008 3:39:36 PM MC# 2080007: - From Robert A. Sturgell, Acting Administrator, FAA, 1/8/08 Since the Southwest 1248 accident the Federal Aviation Administration has taken several actions to address the safety issues that are the focus of these recommendations, including the development of proposed Operations Specification C082, and the issuance of Safety Alert for Operators (SAFO) 06012, which address landing distance computation with a 15 percent safety margin. A survey of part 121 operators, the results of which have been briefed to the Board's staff, indicates that 92 percent of U.S. airline passengers are now being carried by air carriers in full or partial compliance with the practices recommended in SAFO 06012. On November 6, 2007, the FAA issued Advisory Circular (AC) 91-79, Runway Overrun Prevention (copy enclosed). This AC provides ways for pilots and operators of turbine-powered airplanes to identify, understand, and mitigate risks associated with runway overruns during the landing phase of flight. It also provides operators with detailed information that may be used to develop company standard operating procedures to mitigate those risks. The broader mandate that the Board is now recommending will require rulemaking. On December 6,2007, the FAA issued a notice announcing the formation of an aviation rulemaking committee (ARC) to review regulations affecting certification and operation of airplanes and airports for airplane takeoff and landing operations on contaminated runways (72 FR 68763) (copy enclosed). The ARC will provide advice and recommendations to: · Establish airplane certification and operational requirements (including training) for takeoff and landing operations on contaminated runways; · Establish landing distance assessment requirements, including minimum landing distance safety margins, to be performed at the time of arrival; and · Establish standards for runway surface condition reporting and minimum surface conditions for continued operations. While this rulemaking effort progresses, we will continue to work with the air carriers and industry to gain the widest possible compliance with the elements of SAFO 06012.