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Safety Recommendation Details

Safety Recommendation A-07-062
Details
Synopsis: On December 8, 2005, about 1914 central standard time, Southwest Airlines (SWA) flight 1248, a Boeing 737-7H4, N471WN, ran off the departure end of runway 31C after landing at Chicago Midway International Airport (MDW), Chicago, Illinois. The airplane rolled through a blast fence, an airport perimeter fence, and onto an adjacent roadway, where it struck an automobile before coming to a stop. A child in the automobile was killed, one automobile occupant received serious injuries, and three other automobile occupants received minor injuries. Eighteen of the 103 airplane occupants (98 passengers, 3 flight attendants, and 2 pilots) received minor injuries, and the airplane was substantially damaged. The airplane was being operated under the provisions of 14 Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) Part 121 and had departed from Baltimore/Washington International Thurgood Marshall Airport, Baltimore, Maryland, about 1758 eastern standard time. Instrument meteorological conditions prevailed at the time of the accident flight, which operated on an instrument flight rules flight plan.
Recommendation: TO THE FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION: Develop and issue formal guidance regarding standards and guidelines for the development, delivery, and interpretation of runway surface condition reports.
Original recommendation transmittal letter: PDF
Overall Status: Closed - Acceptable Action
Mode: Aviation
Location: Chicago Midway Airport, IL, United States
Is Reiterated: No
Is Hazmat: No
Is NPRM: No
Accident #: DCA06MA009
Accident Reports: Runway Overrun and Collision Southwest Airlines Flight 1248 Boeing 737-74H, N471WN
Report #: AAR-07-06
Accident Date: 12/8/2005
Issue Date: 10/16/2007
Date Closed: 8/23/2017
Addressee(s) and Addressee Status: FAA (Closed - Acceptable Action)
Keyword(s): Runway Safety

Safety Recommendation History
From: NTSB
To: FAA
Date: 8/23/2017
Response: We note that your takeoff and landing performance assessment aviation rulemaking committee developed a runway condition assessment matrix (RCAM) and that, as of October 1, 2016, the RCAM is being used nationwide to categorize and interpret runway conditions. The nationwide use of the RCAM satisfies Safety Recommendation A-07-62, which is classified CLOSED--ACCEPTABLE ACTION.

From: NTSB
To: FAA
Date: 3/4/2015
Response: From CC# 201500140: The National Transportation Safety Board (NTSB) has reviewed the Federal Aviation Administration’s (FAA) draft Advisory Circulars (AC) 25-X, “Takeoff Performance Data for Operations on Contaminated Runways,” and AC 25-X, “Landing Performance Data for Time-of-Arrival Landing Performance Assessments,” which were posted for comment on the FAA’s website on January 21, 2015. Both of these draft ACs provide guidance and standardized methods that data providers, such as type certificate (TC) holders, supplemental type certificate (STC) holders, applicants, and airplane operators can use when developing performance data for transport category airplanes for operations on contaminated runways. The AC also promotes the use of consistent terminology for runway surface conditions used among data providers and FAA personnel. The NTSB is pleased that the ACs take some steps toward addressing the recommendations of the Takeoff and Landing Performance Assessment Aviation Rulemaking Committee (TALPA ARC). The NTSB believes that it is valuable to define common methods to assess runway surface conditions along with common terms to report those conditions, and that it is critical to develop a correlation between runway surface condition descriptions, pilot-reported braking action and expected airplane wheel braking coefficients. The related industry-developed Runway Condition Assessment Matrix (RCAM) tool can support and improve operational decisions on the flight deck, in the back offices, and on the ground. NTSB safety recommendations addressing these issues include: A-07-59 Require all 14 Code of Federal Regulations Part 121 and 135 operators to provide clear guidance and training to pilots and dispatchers regarding company policy on surface condition and braking action reports and the assumptions affecting landing distance/stopping margin calculations, to include use of airplane ground deceleration devices, wind conditions and limits, air distance, and safety margins. A-07-62 Develop and issue formal guidance regarding standards and guidelines for the development, delivery, and interpretation of runway surface condition reports. A-08-42 Issue a CertAlert to all 14 Code of Federal Regulations Part 139 certificated airports that describes the circumstances of this accident, emphasizes the importance of specific and decisive radio communications, and urges airports to ensure that those criteria are being met in all airfield radio communications. A-08-43 Require all 14 Code of Federal Regulations Part 139 certificated airport operators to include in their airport’s snow and ice control plan absolute criteria for type and depth of contamination and runway friction assessments that, when met, would trigger immediate closure of the affected runway to air carrier operations. Friction assessments should be based on pilot braking action reports, values obtained from ground friction measuring equipment, or estimates provided by airport ground personnel. The ACs also provide some guidance that data providers can use to develop appropriate data to support operational assessments of takeoff or landing performance on wet or contaminated runways, as well as guidance for incorporating existing advisory performance data into the framework suggested in the ACs.

From: NTSB
To: FAA
Date: 2/10/2014
Response: We appreciate receiving the description of activities and accomplishments related to this recommendation, including revisions to the Notices to Airmen system, the FAA’s assessment of the Runway Condition Assessment Matrix (RCAM), and the June 2013 publication of the report titled “Takeoff and Landing Performance Assessment Validation Effort of the Runway Condition Assessment Matrix.” Currently, the FAA is implementing the RCAM and its processes into all aviation operations. Pending completion of the recommended action, Safety Recommendation A 07-62 remains classified OPEN—ACCEPTABLE RESPONSE.

From: FAA
To: NTSB
Date: 12/24/2013
Response: -From Michael P. Huerta, Administrator: The Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) has formed a team consisting of responsible offices dedicated to the implementation of the TALPA (Takeoff and Landing Performance Assessment) process. The team has established a target of full implementation of the TALPA process by the fall of 2016. Since our last update, the FAA implementation team met several times, and has made progress in several areas important to the implementation of TALPA. Two of these areas are changes to the Notices to Airmen (NOT AM) system, and assessment of the Runway Condition Assessment Matrix (RCAM). A safety risk management panel met to review the risks of incorporating contamination terminology changes into the NOT AM system. As a result, initial changes to the NOT AM system are in process. In June 2013, the FAA published a document titled Takeoff and Landing Performance Assessment Validation Effort of the Runway Condition Assessment Matrix. This document examines the RCAM's processes to determine if they could be implemented at airports nationwide in order to disseminate runway surface condition information to pilots prior to landing. An industry team, along with the FAA, airport operators, and air carrier representatives, reviewed the evaluation approach, analysis, and results. Based on the results of the validation efforts, the industry team recommended that the FAA work to implement the RCAM and its processes into aviation operations. This report is available at the following Web site: http://www.airporttech.tc.faa.gov/safety/downloads/TC-TN 13-22.pdf We will continue to hold meetings on a quarterly basis to discuss implementation details, including involvement of the air carriers, airports, other industry representatives and the international community. I will keep the Board informed of the FAA's progress on this recommendation and provide an update by December 31, 2014.

From: NTSB
To: FAA
Date: 9/12/2011
Response: The FAA referred this safety recommendation to its Takeoff/Landing Performance Assessment Aviation Rulemaking Committee (TALPA ARC), which provided its own recommendations to the FAA in April and July of 2009. The TALPA ARC recommendations include a matrix that correlates runway contaminants to a numerical code that pilots can relate to airplane performance data contained in their airplane flight manuals. The TALPA ARC also recommended that airports and airlines test the matrix before implementation, and in the winter of 2009-2010, 10 airports and 2 airlines did so. Once the FAA had reviewed the test results, it revised the matrix. During the winter of 2010-2011, the revised matrix was tested at 29 airports and 2 airlines; the FAA is currently analyzing the results of this recent testing. The activities described by the FAA demonstrate that it is pursuing the recommended action. Accordingly, pending completion of this analysis and issuance of the formal guidance recommended, Safety Recommendation A-07-62 remains classified OPEN—ACCEPTABLE RESPONSE.

From: FAA
To: NTSB
Date: 5/26/2011
Response: CC# 201100225: - From J. Randolph Babbitt, Administrator: The Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) formed the Takeoff/Landing Performance Assessment Aviation Rulemaking Committee (ARC). This committee was formed to review regulations affecting certification and operation of airplanes and airports for airplane takeoff and landing operations on runways contaminated by snow, slush, ice, or standing water. The ARC provided recommendations to the FAA in April and July of 2009. The recommendations include a matrix that correlates runway contaminants to a numerical code. Pilots can relate that code to airplane performance data in the flight manual. Another ARC recommendation was that airports and airlines test the matrix before implementation to ensure the correlation between runway conditions, codes, and information in the flight manual are accurate. In the winter of 2009-2010, 10 airports (7 in Alaska, 2 in Michigan, and 1 in Minnesota) and 2 airlines, Alaska Airlines and Pinnacle Airlines, tested the matrix. In September 2010, a group of FAA and industry representatives made changes to the matrix based on the test results and the group recommended more testing. During the 2010-2011 winter, 29 airports (11 in Alaska, 4 in Colorado, 3 in Michigan, 2 in Minnesota, 2 in Wisconsin, 2 in New York, 1 in Idaho, 1 in Montana, 1 in South Dakota, 1 in Indiana, and 1 in New Jersey) and Alaska Airlines and Pinnacle Airlines tested the changed matrix. The analyzed results of this testing will determine our next steps.

From: NTSB
To: FAA
Date: 6/13/2008
Response: On December 6, 2007, the FAA issued a notice announcing the formation of an aviation rulemaking committee (ARC) to review regulations affecting certification and operation of airplanes and airports for takeoff and landing operations on contaminated runways. The following items are among those for which the FAA has tasked the ARC to provide advice and recommendations: ·Establishment of airplane certification and operational requirements (including training) for takeoff and landing operations on contaminated runways ·Establishment of landing distance assessment requirements, including minimum landing distance safety margins, to be performed at the time of arrival ·Establishment of standards for runway surface condition reporting and minimum surface conditions for continued operations Formation of the ARC with the specific tasks described is a responsive first step. Pending the FAA’s taking the recommended actions, Safety Recommendations A-07-59, -62, and -63 are classified OPEN -- ACCEPTABLE RESPONSE. Safety Recommendation A-07-61 is addressed and classified as Open Acceptable Response in the Safety Board’s report on the runway overrun accident involving Shuttle America flight 6448, which was presented at a public Board Meeting on April 15, 2008.

From: FAA
To: NTSB
Date: 1/8/2008
Response: Letter Mail Controlled 1/14/2008 3:39:36 PM MC# 2080007: - From Robert A. Sturgell, Acting Administrator, FAA, 1/8/08 Since the Southwest 1248 accident the Federal Aviation Administration has taken several actions to address the safety issues that are the focus of these recommendations, including the development of proposed Operations Specification C082, and the issuance of Safety Alert for Operators (SAFO) 06012, which address landing distance computation with a 15 percent safety margin. A survey of part 121 operators, the results of which have been briefed to the Board's staff, indicates that 92 percent of U.S. airline passengers are now being carried by air carriers in full or partial compliance with the practices recommended in SAFO 06012. On November 6, 2007, the FAA issued Advisory Circular (AC) 91-79, Runway Overrun Prevention (copy enclosed). This AC provides ways for pilots and operators of turbine-powered airplanes to identify, understand, and mitigate risks associated with runway overruns during the landing phase of flight. It also provides operators with detailed information that may be used to develop company standard operating procedures to mitigate those risks. The broader mandate that the Board is now recommending will require rulemaking. On December 6,2007, the FAA issued a notice announcing the formation of an aviation rulemaking committee (ARC) to review regulations affecting certification and operation of airplanes and airports for airplane takeoff and landing operations on contaminated runways (72 FR 68763) (copy enclosed). The ARC will provide advice and recommendations to: ·Establish airplane certification and operational requirements (including training) for takeoff and landing operations on contaminated runways; ·Establish landing distance assessment requirements, including minimum landing distance safety margins, to be performed at the time of arrival; and ·Establish standards for runway surface condition reporting and minimum surface conditions for continued operations. While this rulemaking effort progresses, we will continue to work with the air carriers and industry to gain the widest possible compliance with the elements of SAFO 06012.