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Safety Recommendation H-92-098
Details
Synopsis: THROUGHOUT ITS 25-YEAR HISTORY, THE SAFETY BOARD HAS CONDUCTED IN-DEPTH INVESTIGATIONS OF HUNDREDS OF HIGHWAY ACCIDENTS INVOLVING COMMERCIAL VEHICLES OVER 10,000 POUNDS. PRIOR TO THE FALL OF 1991, SAFETY BOARD INVESTIGATORS CITED A WHEEL FAILURE AS THE CAUSAL FACTOR IN ONLY ONE FATAL CASE. BEGINNING IN FALL 1991, THE SAFETY BOARD INVESTIGATED A SPATE OF FIVE TRUCK-WHEEL RUNOFF ACCIDENTS IN WHICH A TOTAL OF SEVEN PEOPLE DIED. IN THE 3-WEEK PERIOD ALONE BETWEEN OCTOBER 14 AND NOVEMBER 4, 1991, THREE FATAL HEAVY TRUCK-WHEEL SEPARATION ACCIDENTS OCCURRED, INCLUDING AN ACCIDENT IN WHICH THE FRONT LEFT WHEEL BROKE OFF OF A TWO-AXLE CARGO VAN TRUCK AND CAREENED INTO THE PATH OF AN ONCOMING SCHOOLBUS CARRYING 46 FOURTH-GRADERS AND THEIR CHAPERONES. THE 365-POUND WHEEL SLAMMED THROUGH THE BUS WINDSHIELD, KILLING TWO CHILDREN AND A CHAPERONE.
Recommendation: THE NTSB RECOMMENDS THAT THE AMERICAN TRUCKING ASSOCIATIONS, IN COOPERATION WITH THE NATIONAL WHEEL & RIM ASSOCIATION, THE MOTOR VEHICLE MANUFACTURERS ASSOCIATION OF THE UNITED STATES, TRUCK TRAILER MANUFACTURERS ASSOCIATION, AND THE SOCIETY OF AUTOMOTIVE ENGINEERS: DEVELOP AND DISSEMINATE MODEL GUIDELINES FOR THE INSPECTION AND MAINTENANCE OF ALL TYPES OF MEDIUM/HEAVY TRUCK WHEELS.
Original recommendation transmittal letter: PDF
Overall Status: Closed - Acceptable Action
Mode: Highway
Location: Miami, FL, United States
Is Reiterated: No
Is Hazmat: No
Is NPRM: No
Accident #: SRH92FH001
Accident Reports:
Report #: SIR-92-04
Accident Date: 10/14/1991
Issue Date: 10/23/1992
Date Closed: 5/7/2004
Addressee(s) and Addressee Status: Alliance of Automobile Manufacturers (Closed--No Longer Applicable)
American Trucking Associations, Inc. (Closed - Acceptable Action)
National Wheel and Rim Association (Closed - Acceptable Action)
SAE International (Closed - Acceptable Action)
Truck Trailer Manufacturers Association (Closed - Acceptable Action)
Keyword(s):

Safety Recommendation History
From: NTSB
To: American Trucking Associations, Inc.
Date: 5/7/2004
Response: Notation # 5846A administratively closed this recommendation on 5/7/2004. The Board's special investigation report and recommendations provided the impetus for several initiatives related to the issues addressed in these recommendations. Following the issuance of the Board's recommendations, the Tire & Rim Study Group of the Technology & Maintenance Council (TMC) arm of the American Trucking Associations organized a task force to address the safety issue outlined in H-92-98-the lack of uniform maintenance procedures within the wheel end community of medium/heavy vehicle suppliers. The task force consisted of industry suppliers representing manufacturers of tires, rims, hubs, brake drums, axles, spindle nuts, wheel flange nuts, fasteners and pneumatic tools. The goal of the task force was to develop and publish a new TMC Recommended Practice addressing uniform maintenance procedures. In 1994, the task force completed its objective with the release of TMC Recommended Practice RP-222 "User's Guide to Wheels and Rims." RP-222 not only established uniform maintenance procedures for medium and heavy truck wheels, it also provided a section of out-of-service conditions for wheel end components. The TMC also developed several Recommended Practices related to wheel bearings-the issue addressed in H-92-99. Specifically, RP-618 "Wheel Bearing Adjustment Procedures," the goal of which is to achieve a verifiable wheel bearing end play between 0.001 inch and 0.005 inch; RP-622 "Wheel Seal and Bearing Removal, Installation, and Maintenance," which sets forth procedures and standards for storage, handling, and installation of wheel seals and wheel bearings for heavy-duty vehicles; RP-631 "Recommendations for Wheel End Lubrication," which offers recommendations and operational considerations for selecting lubricants for use in wheel end applications; and RP-640 "Alternate Wheel Bearing Adjustment Systems," which offers information on wheel bearing adjustment systems beyond those covered in RP-618. In 1999, the TMC also released RP-231 "Wheel System Maintenance Labeling," which provides uniform guidelines for vehicle labels-the issue addressed in H-92-101. Also, when RP-222 was released in 1994, the wheel end suppliers not only updated their printed maintenance manuals, but also updated the vehicle labels that they commonly furnish. In addition to the above information that was provided by the SAE, the Safety Board was informed by the TTMA that it had developed TTMA Technical Bulletin (TB) No. 114 in response to the Board's recommendation. TTMA TB No. 114 advises operators of the potential dangers of axle hub and/or trailer wheel separation if improper maintenance procedures are used. We were also informed of safety meetings and seminars conducted by TTMA for other organizations on proper truck wheel inspection and maintenance procedures. With respect to the educational program addressed in H-92-100 and -102, the Safety Board was informed that the TMC of the ATA, in addition to revising various recommended practices (as outlined above), was also developing a training video for the Commercial Vehicle Safety Alliance concerning wheel and rim inspection and out-of-service criteria. The FHWA also informed the Board that it had contacted all of the associations addressed in the Board's recommendation to work with them to support the development of an educational program on proper wheel tightening procedures by carriers and manufacturers. When the above information was received from the SAE, the recommendations to that organization were appropriately classified closed in an acceptable manner (see table below). Likewise, when information was received from the TTMA and the FHWA, the recommendations to those organizations were also appropriately closed in an acceptable manner. The Safety Board believes that when those recommendations were classified, all open recommendations from this special investigation should have been reviewed and also classified. For example, even though the SAE provided detailed information regarding the activity of the TMC of the ATA, only the recommendations to the SAE were classified, not those to the ATA. Similarly, the Board was aware from reading all correspondence related to these recommendations that the NWRA was actively involved in the initiatives to develop the recommended practices and the educational program, yet no proposal was made to close the recommendations to that organization. Consequently, Safety Recommendations H-92-98 through -101 are now classified "Closed-Acceptable Action" for the ATA and the NWRA. H-92-102 is classified "Closed-Acceptable Action" for the NWRA (the recommendation is already so classified for ATA). The involvement of the MVMA was never documented nor was a response ever received. Given that action on these recommendations has been adequately completed, with or without the MVMA's involvement, Safety Recommendations H-92-98 through -102 are classified "Closed-No Longer Applicable" to the MVMA.

From: NTSB
To: American Trucking Associations, Inc.
Date: 2/3/1993
Response: THE BOARD IS AWARE THAT THE OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY & HEALTH ADMINISTRATION HAS ISSUED STANDARDS ON PROPER WHEEL & RIM SERVICING. THE BOARD UNDERSTANDS THAT THE MAINTENANCE COUNCIL (TMC) OF ATA IS CURRENTLY REVISING ITS ADVISORY, "RIM & WHEEL SELECTION & MAINTENANCE," TO EMPHASIZE THOSE AREA COVERED IN OUR REPORT & IS ALSO DEVELOPING A TRAINING VIDEO FOR THE COMMERCIAL VEHICLE SAFETY ALLIANCE CONCERNING WHEEL & RIM INSPECTION & OUT-OF-SERVICE CRITERIA. WE LOOK FORWARD TO RECEIVING A COPY OF THE REVISED ADVISORY & THE NEW TRAINING VIDEO. PENDING FURTHER RESPONSE, RECOMMENDATIONS H-92-98, H-92-100, & H-92-102 WILL BE CLASSIFIED "OPEN--ACCEPTABLE RESPONSE."

From: American Trucking Associations, Inc.
To: NTSB
Date: 12/16/1992
Response: THIS IS ALREADY COVERED THROUGH REGULATIONS AND MATERIALS EXISTING TODAY. THE OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION HAS ISSUED STANDARDS REGARDING WHEEL AND RIM SERVICING. WHILE THE OSHA REGULATIONS ARE AMIED AT ASSURING WORKER SAFETY, THEY ALSO PROMOTE PROPER WHEEL MAINTENANCE. ADDITIONALLY, THERE ARE MATERIALS PRODUCED BY THE MAINTENANCE COUNCIL OF THE ATA (TMC) AND DISTRIBUTED BY TMC AND ALL TIRE AND WHEEL MANUFACTURERS. ANOTHER TMC PUBLICATION IS AN ADVISORY ON "RIM AND WHEEL SELECTION AND MAINTENANCE." THIS MATERIAL IS BEING REVISED AND THOSE AREAS NTSB HAS EMPHASIZED IN ITS REPORT ON WHEELS WILL BE GIVEN SPECIAL ATTENTION IN THE NEW MATERIAL.

From: NTSB
To: Truck Trailer Manufacturers Association
Date: 4/29/1996
Response: THE BOARD UNDERSTANDS, THROUGH OUR DISCUSSIONS WITH MR. DON VIERIMAA OF YOUR STAFF, THAT THE TTMA HAS TAKEN THE LEAD IN DEVELOPING TRUCK WHEEL INSPECTION & MAINTENANCE PROCEDURES. FURTHERMORE, TTMA TECHNICAL BULLETIN NO. 114 ADVISES OPERATORS OF THE POTENTIAL DANGERS OF AXLE HUB &/OR TRAILER WHEEL SEPARATION IF IMPROPER MAINTENANCE PROCEDURES ARE USED. WE ALSO ARE AWARE THAT OTHER ORGANIZATION, THROUGH SAFETY MEETINGS & SEMINARS CONDUCTED BY THE TTMA, ARE CONTINUALLY USING YOUR STANDARDS AS GUIDELINES FOR PROPER TRUCK WHEEL INSPECTION & MAINTENANCE. BASED ON THIS INFO, H-92-98 THROUGH -100 & H-92-102 HAVE BEEN CLASSIFIED "CLOSED--ACCEPTABLE ACTION." SINCE THE TTMA HAS ADVISED OPERATORS TO ALWAY FOLLOW MANUFACTURERS' RECOMMENDED ASSEMBLY & MAINTENANCE PROCEDURES ON AXLE NUT ADJUSTMENT, BEARING LUBRICATION & TORQUE REQUIREMENTS, H-92-101 HAS BEEN CLASSIFIED "CLOSED--ACCEPTABLE ALTERNATE ACTION."

From: Truck Trailer Manufacturers Association
To: NTSB
Date: 10/10/1995
Response: PLEASE FIND AS FOLLOWS TTMA TB NO. 114, "WHEEL-END SPEPARATIONS" WHICH WAS DEVELOPED IN RESPONSE TO YOUR RECOMMENDATIONS.

From: NTSB
To: National Wheel and Rim Association
Date: 5/7/2004
Response: Notation # 5846A administratively closed this recommendation on 5/7/2004. The Board's special investigation report and recommendations provided the impetus for several initiatives related to the issues addressed in these recommendations. Following the issuance of the Board's recommendations, the Tire & Rim Study Group of the Technology & Maintenance Council (TMC) arm of the American Trucking Associations organized a task force to address the safety issue outlined in H-92-98-the lack of uniform maintenance procedures within the wheel end community of medium/heavy vehicle suppliers. The task force consisted of industry suppliers representing manufacturers of tires, rims, hubs, brake drums, axles, spindle nuts, wheel flange nuts, fasteners and pneumatic tools. The goal of the task force was to develop and publish a new TMC Recommended Practice addressing uniform maintenance procedures. In 1994, the task force completed its objective with the release of TMC Recommended Practice RP-222 "User's Guide to Wheels and Rims." RP-222 not only established uniform maintenance procedures for medium and heavy truck wheels, it also provided a section of out-of-service conditions for wheel end components. The TMC also developed several Recommended Practices related to wheel bearings-the issue addressed in H-92-99. Specifically, RP-618 "Wheel Bearing Adjustment Procedures," the goal of which is to achieve a verifiable wheel bearing end play between 0.001 inch and 0.005 inch; RP-622 "Wheel Seal and Bearing Removal, Installation, and Maintenance," which sets forth procedures and standards for storage, handling, and installation of wheel seals and wheel bearings for heavy-duty vehicles; RP-631 "Recommendations for Wheel End Lubrication," which offers recommendations and operational considerations for selecting lubricants for use in wheel end applications; and RP-640 "Alternate Wheel Bearing Adjustment Systems," which offers information on wheel bearing adjustment systems beyond those covered in RP-618. In 1999, the TMC also released RP-231 "Wheel System Maintenance Labeling," which provides uniform guidelines for vehicle labels-the issue addressed in H-92-101. Also, when RP-222 was released in 1994, the wheel end suppliers not only updated their printed maintenance manuals, but also updated the vehicle labels that they commonly furnish. In addition to the above information that was provided by the SAE, the Safety Board was informed by the TTMA that it had developed TTMA Technical Bulletin (TB) No. 114 in response to the Board's recommendation. TTMA TB No. 114 advises operators of the potential dangers of axle hub and/or trailer wheel separation if improper maintenance procedures are used. We were also informed of safety meetings and seminars conducted by TTMA for other organizations on proper truck wheel inspection and maintenance procedures. With respect to the educational program addressed in H-92-100 and -102, the Safety Board was informed that the TMC of the ATA, in addition to revising various recommended practices (as outlined above), was also developing a training video for the Commercial Vehicle Safety Alliance concerning wheel and rim inspection and out-of-service criteria. The FHWA also informed the Board that it had contacted all of the associations addressed in the Board's recommendation to work with them to support the development of an educational program on proper wheel tightening procedures by carriers and manufacturers. When the above information was received from the SAE, the recommendations to that organization were appropriately classified closed in an acceptable manner (see table below). Likewise, when information was received from the TTMA and the FHWA, the recommendations to those organizations were also appropriately closed in an acceptable manner. The Safety Board believes that when those recommendations were classified, all open recommendations from this special investigation should have been reviewed and also classified. For example, even though the SAE provided detailed information regarding the activity of the TMC of the ATA, only the recommendations to the SAE were classified, not those to the ATA. Similarly, the Board was aware from reading all correspondence related to these recommendations that the NWRA was actively involved in the initiatives to develop the recommended practices and the educational program, yet no proposal was made to close the recommendations to that organization. Consequently, Safety Recommendations H-92-98 through -101 are now classified "Closed-Acceptable Action" for the ATA and the NWRA. H-92-102 is classified "Closed-Acceptable Action" for the NWRA (the recommendation is already so classified for ATA). The involvement of the MVMA was never documented nor was a response ever received. Given that action on these recommendations has been adequately completed, with or without the MVMA's involvement, Safety Recommendations H-92-98 through -102 are classified "Closed-No Longer Applicable" to the MVMA.

From: NTSB
To: National Wheel and Rim Association
Date: 1/26/1993
Response: THE BOARD UNDERSTANDS THAT THE NWRA HAS SEVERAL RESEARCH PROGRAMS UNDERWAY IN CONJUNCTION WITH THE AMERICAN TRUCKING ASSOCIATIONS TO ADDRSS THESE RECOMMENDATIONS. WE ARE ESPECIALLY INTERESTED IN THE DEVELOPMENT OF THE NEW MANUAL & VIDEOTAPE ABOUT MAINTENANCE PROCEDURES FOR WHEEL ATTACHING PARTS. BASED ON OUR RECENT EXPERIENCE WITH COMMERCIAL VEHICLE MAINTENANCE IN CALIFORNIA, TEXAS, & FLORIDA, THE BOARD SUGGESTS THAT THE NEW MANUAL & VIDEOTAPE BE TRANSLATED INTO SPANISH. PENDING OUR REVIEW OF THE NEW MANUAL, RECOMMENDATIONS H-92-98 THROUGH -101 WILL BE CLASSIFIED "OPEN--ACCEPTABLE RESPONSE."

From: National Wheel and Rim Association
To: NTSB
Date: 11/25/1992
Response: THE ASSOCIATION IS PRESENTLY CO-OPERATING WITH THE AMERICAN TRUCKING ASSOCIATION THROUGH OUR ASSOCIATE MEMBERS WHO ARE WHEEL AND RIM MANUFACTURERS TO ADDRESS YOUR REQUEST FOR AN EDUCATIONAL PROGRAM ON PROPER WHEEL TIGHTENING PROCEDURES. OUR ASSOCIATE MEMBERS ARE CO-OPERATING WITH MAINTENANCE COUNCIL OF ATA IN THE DEVELOPMENT OF MAINTENANCE PROCEDURES FOR WHEEL ATTACHING PARTS. IT IS MU UNDERSTANDING THAT THESE PROCEDURES WILL BE IN A PRINTED MANUAL AND IN A VIDEO FORMAT.

From: NTSB
To: SAE International
Date: 6/28/2002
Response: The Safety Board notes that in 1994, the Technology and Maintenance Council (TMC) published Recommended Practice RP-222, User's Guide for Wheels and Rims. RP-222 not only provides guidance on out-of-service conditions for wheel-end components but also establishes uniform maintenance procedures for medium and heavy truck wheels. As a result of the development and extensive distribution of RP-222, Safety Recommendation H-92-98 is classified "Closed--Acceptable Action."

From: SAE International
To: NTSB
Date: 2/18/2002
Response: Letter Mail Controlled 03/07/2002 2:58:06 PM MC# 2020260 In 1992, the NTSB issued a Special Investigation Report "Medium/Heavy Truck Wheel Separations (NTSB/SIR-92/04)". One of the NTSB observations was the lack of uniform maintenance procedures within the wheel end community of medium/heavy vehicle suppliers. At that point, the S.2 Tire & Rim Study Group of TMC organized a specific Task Force to address this issue. This Task Force was chaired by Peggy Fisher who at that time was President of Roadway Tire Company and this task force consisted of industry suppliers representing tires, rims, hubs, brake drums, axles, spindle nuts, wheel flange nuts, fasteners and pneumatic tools. The goal of that Task Force was to develop and publish a new TMC Recommended Practice addressing uniform maintenance procedures. Two years later in 1994, this task force completed it's objective with the release of TMC Recommended Practice RP-222 "User's Guide to Wheels and Rims." RP-222 not only accomplishes the goal of establishing uniform maintenance procedures for medium and heavy truck wheels, it also provides a section for Out-Of-Service conditions for wheel end components and a section for air system and impact wrench maintenance. In addition to the release of RP-222, the wheel end suppliers made a conscious effort to update their printed maintenance manuals to match the new industry-standard guidelines published in RP-222. Since 1994, this publication is one of the TMCS' best selling publications and has clearly answered NTSB Safety Recommendation H-92-98.

From: NTSB
To: SAE International
Date: 8/1/2001
Response: The Safety Board understands that the SAE has written, revised, and published numerous technical reports and conducted several cooperative research programs relevant to the above recommendations. Mr. Berringer further indicates that the society is in the process of a literature review related to these recommended actions, and will provide a report to the Board detailing both its completed efforts on these issues and the status of ongoing programs that are relevant. We look forward to receiving more detailed responses to our recommendations. Pending further response, Safety Recommendations H-92-98 through -102 and H-97-39 are classified “Open--Acceptable Response.”

From: SAE International
To: NTSB
Date: 4/30/2001
Response: MC 2010392.

From: NTSB
To: SAE International
Date: 3/7/2001
Response: The Safety Board has received no reply from your association regarding Safety Recommendations H-92-98 through -102 or H-97-39. The Board would appreciate learning what action, if any, your association has taken to implement these recommendations. Copies of the original recommendation letters are enclosed. Please refer to Safety Recommendations H-92-98 through -102 and H-97-39 in your reply, and address your response to Ms. Carol J. Carmody, Acting Chairman.

From: NTSB
To: Alliance of Automobile Manufacturers
Date: 5/7/2004
Response: Notation # 5846A administratively closed this recommendation on 5/7/2004. The Board's special investigation report and recommendations provided the impetus for several initiatives related to the issues addressed in these recommendations. Following the issuance of the Board's recommendations, the Tire & Rim Study Group of the Technology & Maintenance Council (TMC) arm of the American Trucking Associations organized a task force to address the safety issue outlined in H-92-98-the lack of uniform maintenance procedures within the wheel end community of medium/heavy vehicle suppliers. The task force consisted of industry suppliers representing manufacturers of tires, rims, hubs, brake drums, axles, spindle nuts, wheel flange nuts, fasteners and pneumatic tools. The goal of the task force was to develop and publish a new TMC Recommended Practice addressing uniform maintenance procedures. In 1994, the task force completed its objective with the release of TMC Recommended Practice RP-222 "User's Guide to Wheels and Rims." RP-222 not only established uniform maintenance procedures for medium and heavy truck wheels, it also provided a section of out-of-service conditions for wheel end components. The TMC also developed several Recommended Practices related to wheel bearings-the issue addressed in H-92-99. Specifically, RP-618 "Wheel Bearing Adjustment Procedures," the goal of which is to achieve a verifiable wheel bearing end play between 0.001 inch and 0.005 inch; RP-622 "Wheel Seal and Bearing Removal, Installation, and Maintenance," which sets forth procedures and standards for storage, handling, and installation of wheel seals and wheel bearings for heavy-duty vehicles; RP-631 "Recommendations for Wheel End Lubrication," which offers recommendations and operational considerations for selecting lubricants for use in wheel end applications; and RP-640 "Alternate Wheel Bearing Adjustment Systems," which offers information on wheel bearing adjustment systems beyond those covered in RP-618. In 1999, the TMC also released RP-231 "Wheel System Maintenance Labeling," which provides uniform guidelines for vehicle labels-the issue addressed in H-92-101. Also, when RP-222 was released in 1994, the wheel end suppliers not only updated their printed maintenance manuals, but also updated the vehicle labels that they commonly furnish. In addition to the above information that was provided by the SAE, the Safety Board was informed by the TTMA that it had developed TTMA Technical Bulletin (TB) No. 114 in response to the Board's recommendation. TTMA TB No. 114 advises operators of the potential dangers of axle hub and/or trailer wheel separation if improper maintenance procedures are used. We were also informed of safety meetings and seminars conducted by TTMA for other organizations on proper truck wheel inspection and maintenance procedures. With respect to the educational program addressed in H-92-100 and -102, the Safety Board was informed that the TMC of the ATA, in addition to revising various recommended practices (as outlined above), was also developing a training video for the Commercial Vehicle Safety Alliance concerning wheel and rim inspection and out-of-service criteria. The FHWA also informed the Board that it had contacted all of the associations addressed in the Board's recommendation to work with them to support the development of an educational program on proper wheel tightening procedures by carriers and manufacturers. When the above information was received from the SAE, the recommendations to that organization were appropriately classified closed in an acceptable manner (see table below). Likewise, when information was received from the TTMA and the FHWA, the recommendations to those organizations were also appropriately closed in an acceptable manner. The Safety Board believes that when those recommendations were classified, all open recommendations from this special investigation should have been reviewed and also classified. For example, even though the SAE provided detailed information regarding the activity of the TMC of the ATA, only the recommendations to the SAE were classified, not those to the ATA. Similarly, the Board was aware from reading all correspondence related to these recommendations that the NWRA was actively involved in the initiatives to develop the recommended practices and the educational program, yet no proposal was made to close the recommendations to that organization. Consequently, Safety Recommendations H-92-98 through -101 are now classified "Closed-Acceptable Action" for the ATA and the NWRA. H-92-102 is classified "Closed-Acceptable Action" for the NWRA (the recommendation is already so classified for ATA). The involvement of the MVMA was never documented nor was a response ever received. Given that action on these recommendations has been adequately completed, with or without the MVMA's involvement, Safety Recommendations H-92-98 through -102 are classified "Closed-No Longer Applicable" to the MVMA.