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On February 29, 2004, at 1232 Eastern Standard Time, a Cessna 210, N9660T, registered to a private owner, operating as a 14 CFR Part 91 instructional flight, collided with the ground while maneuvering at the Tri-Cities Regional Airport, Blountville, Tennessee. Visual meteorological conditions prevailed and no flight plan was filed. The airplane received substantial damage. The private pilot was fatally injured and the commercial pilot flight instructor died on March 1, 2004. The flight originated from Greeneville-Green County Municipal Airport, Greeneville, Tennessee, at 1209 on February 29, 2004.
Review of transcripts between the pilot of N9660T and Tri-Cities Approach Control revealed the pilot established radio contact at 1208 and requested a full ILS Approach. The airplane was identified by the controller on radar and the pilot was provided vectors to the final approach for ILS Runway 23, and instructed to maintain VFR. At 1225 the pilot was cleared for the ILS Approach by the controller and instructed to contact the tower. The pilot contacted the tower and was cleared for a full stop landing or a touch and go landing and was informed that the winds were calm. The pilot acknowledged the clearance and there was no other communication with the pilot.
An airline employee located at the airport stated he was outside working a departing flight when he observed a beige colored airplane on approach to land on runway 23. "The airplane appeared to be unstable as it was turning from left to right and going up and down. The airplane touched down hard on the runway and bounced back into the air about 15 to 20 feet high in the vicinity of the 5,000-foot runway marker. The airplane started to yaw to the left. The nose of the airplane was pitched up about 60-degrees and the wings were level. The airspeed was very slow. The airplane appeared to be left of the runway and stalled. The left wing dropped and the nose pitched down. The airplane disappeared from view below a gully on the southeast side of the runway."
Review of information on file with the FAA Airman's Certification Division, Oklahoma City, Oklahoma, revealed the pilot was issued a private pilot certificate on October 12, 2001, with ratings for airplane single engine land, and instrument airplane. The pilot held a first class medical issued on June 27, 2001, with no restrictions. The pilot reported on his application for the medical certificate that he had accumulated 92 total flight hours. . The pilot had recorded 356 hours of which 46.2 hours was in the Cessna 210. The pilot's last biennial flight review was on March 9, 2003.
Review of information on file with the FAA Airman's Certification Division, Oklahoma City, Oklahoma, revealed the commercial pilot was issued a commercial pilot certificate on March 18, 2002, with ratings for airplane single engine land, multiengine land and instrument airplane. In addition the pilot was issued a flight instructor certificate on October 11, 2002, with ratings for instrument airplane. The pilot held a second-class medical certificate issued on May 8, 2002, with no restrictions. The pilot reported on his application for the medical certificate that he had accumulated 1,400 total flight hours. The pilot had recorded 1,654.6 hours of which 1,609.6 hours were in the Cessna 210.The pilot's last biennial flight review was conducted on October 11, 2002.
Review of maintenance records revealed the last annual inspection was conducted on January 12, 2004, and the tachometer was 2620.42 hours. The engine time at the annual inspection was 1008.56 hours. The propeller time at the annual inspection was 243.47 hours. The tachometer time at the crash site was 2635.12. Review of refueling records on file at Winchester Municipal Airport revealed the airplane was refueled on February 27, 2004, with 21.3 gallons 100 low-lead fuel.
The 1253 surface weather observation at Tri Cities regional Airport, Blountville, Tennessee was: wind variable at 3 knots, visibility 10 miles, 15,000 scattered, 10,000 broken, temperature 61 degrees Fahrenheit, dew point temperature 43 degrees Fahrenheit, and altimeter 30.33.
WRECKAGE AND IMPACT INFORMATION
The wreckage was located 100 yards south southeast of taxiway Y and runway 23 intersection in a grassy area at the Tri-Cities Regional Airport, Blountville, Tennessee. Taxiway Y is located 3,650 feet from the departure end of runway 23. Examination of runway 23 revealed tire marks began 2,796 feet from the approach end of runway 23 and continued in a curving arc to the left for 453 feet.
Examination of the crash site revealed the airplane collided with the ground in a nose down attitude and came to rest on a heading of 290-degrees magnetic. The engine assembly was crushed upward and to the left. The nose landing gear separated from the airframe. The propeller hub was separated and fragmented. The spinner was formed around the fragmented propeller hub. Two propeller blades separated and one propeller blade remained in the propeller hub attached to the propeller flange. One propeller blade was bent forward at midspan and several nicks were present on the leading edge of the propeller blade. Chord wise scarring was present on the camber side and face side of the propeller blade. Another propeller blade was bent forward 20 to 25-degrees 8-inches outboard of the propeller hub. Several nicks were present on the leading edge and chord wise scarring was present on the camber side and face of the propeller blade. The remaining propeller blade had nicks present on the leading edge and chord wise scarring was present on the camber side and face of the propeller blade.
The cabin area separated forward of the left and right door post, and the windshield had separated from the airframe. The cabin roof was buckled and compressed aft extending rearward 2-feet aft of the aft right door post. The right cabin door separated from the airframe, and the door latch was in the latched position. The left cabin door separated from the top door hinge. The cabin door was in the open position and the door latch was in the latched position. The instrument panel was separated at the instrument rack. The cabin floor was buckled upward. The left and right seat rails were distorted and bent. The left seat remained on the seat track. The left seat locking pin was broken in the vicinity of the seventh hole on the seat track, and the seat was back against the stop. The right seat remained on the seat track. The right locking pin was in the ninth hole of the seat track. The right main landing gear was in the extended position. There was no evidence of side tire wear on the right side of the right main landing gear tire. The flight controls were connected at the control column and extended aft through the wing root and tail cone pulleys.
The right wing was pushed aft and remained attached at its fore and aft attachment points. The right wing strut remained attached at the wing and fuselage attachment points. The leading edge of the right wing received accordion crushing from the wing root extending outboard to the wing tip. The flap was extended 20-degrees and the flap remained attached to the flap track. The inboard flap corner was damage and wedged in the right side of the fuselage. The flap actuator rod was extended 5.4 inches. The right aileron remained attached at the aileron hinges. The right main fuel tank was not ruptured and fuel was present in the fuel tank. The right main landing gear was fully extended and the landing gear door was not damaged.
The left and right tail cone remained attached to the fuselage and was wrinkled along the midsection. The dorsal fin was buckled on the left and right side adjacent to the tail cone wrinkles. The fin and rudder assembly were not damaged, and the rudder balance weight was attached. The stinger was not damaged. The left baggage compartment door was open and remained attached to the airframe. The door latch was in the latched position. The left and right horizontal stabilizers and elevators were not damaged. The elevator balance weights were intact.
The left wing was displaced forward. The left wing was attached to the fore and aft wing attachment points. The left wing forward longeron separated inboard of the forward doorpost. The inboard leading edge of the left wing was crushed aft and up, and the leading edge received impact damage 6-feet 9-inches outboard of the wing root and extended outboard 18-inches. The wing tip was bent upward 3-feet 6-inches inboard of the wing tip. The left wing strut was attached at the wing and fuselage attachment points. The left wing flap was extended 20-degrees and remained attached to the flap track. The flap was buckled upward 16-inches outboard of the inboard end. The flap actuator was extended 5.9-inches. The left aileron remained attached at the aileron hinge attachment points. The aileron was bent upward 1-foot inboard of the outboard end of the aileron. The left fuel tank was not ruptured and fuel was present in the fuel tank. Fuel was dripping from the left fuel vent line. The left main landing gear down lock pawl was not engaged. The left main landing gear door linkage was damaged upward and inward. The landing gear door was crushed up and in on the forward outboard side of the landing gear door. The outboard edge of the left main landing gear tire was worn down to the chord of the tire.
The Electrol Inc., Hydraulic Power Pack and main landing gear actuator were removed and forwarded through the FAA for further examination by the manufacturer. Examination of the power pack revealed the internal supply reservoir was ruptured and would not hold hydraulic fluid. The flow check and verification of the power pack's "gear down" hydraulic circuit check could not be accomplished. The gear door solenoid was broken off and could not be functionally checked. The gear control valve was verified in the down position, as the lever was down, bent and the lock-out solenoid extended, locking the handle in the "down" position. Examination of the main landing gear actuator revealed the actuator did not exhibit any visible damage or severe wear. The piston and sector gear teeth did not show any evidence of damage or abnormal wear.
Examination of the engine assembly revealed the engine was against the firewall and all engine mounts were separated. The top of the engine firewall was crushed back over the top of the engine accessory case. The left and right engine exhaust and induction tubing were crushed and broken. The oil sump was crushed upward. Dirt was present on the front, top, and bottom of the engine assembly. The oil cooler was damaged. The alternator drive pulley was broken. The alternator was bent forward at the support bracket. The starter and left magneto were separated. The throttle butterfly was closed. The mixture lever was broken and located at midrange. The propeller governor arm was in the full aft position. The top of the engine driven fuel pump adjustment screw was broken off. The left muffler fire cone was not damaged. The right muffler fire cone rear half was broken off. The main fuel supply line to the engine driven fuel pump was disconnected and no fuel was present. The fuel return line was disconnected from the fuel pump and no fuel was present. The air box was crushed.
The engine was partially disassembled. The ignition leads on the left top side of the engine were separated. The ignition leads on the right top side were not damaged. The fuel return line was removed between the fuel pump and fuel control unit and fuel was present. The fuel pump was removed and the coupler was intact. The coupler rotated freely by hand and fuel pumped out. The fuel control unit filter screen was clean and unobstructed. No fuel was present in the fuel control unit. The fuel manifold valve was disassembled. The diaphragm, plunger, spring, and ball were intact. The fuel screen was clean and unobstructed and fuel was present in the chamber. The fuel injector nozzles were clean and unobstructed. The vacuum pump was removed. The coupler was intact and turned freely when moved by hand. The vacuum pump vanes could be heard clicking when turned by hand. The left magneto was separated from the mount and the right magneto remained attached to the engine. The left magneto was rotated by hand and spark was noted at all ignition leads. The right magneto was turned by the crankshaft and spark was noted at all ignition leads. Compression and suction were obtained on all cylinders when the crankshaft was rotated. The rocker arms and valves moved when the crankshaft was rotated by hand. The top spark plugs were removed and exhibited worn out normal when compared with the Champion Aviation Check A Plug Card.
MEDICAL AND PATHOLOGICAL INFORMATION
The Upper East Tennessee Forensic Pathology Laboratory conducted a postmortem examination of the private pilot, on March 1, 2004. The reported cause of death was" multiple trauma." The Forensic Toxicology Research Section, Federal Aviation Administration, Oklahoma City, Oklahoma performed postmortem toxicology of specimens from the pilot. The results were negative for carbon monoxide, cyanide, ethanol, basic, acidic, and neutral drugs.
The commercial pilot flight instructor was transported to Wellmont Holston Valley Medical Center for treatment and died on March 1, 2004. The Upper East Tennessee Forensic Pathology Laboratory conducted a postmortem examination of the commercial pilot flight instructor, on March 1, 2004. The reported cause of death was "multiple injuries due to airplane crash." The Forensic Toxicology Research Section, Federal Aviation Administration, Oklahoma City, Oklahoma performed postmortem toxicology of specimens from the commercial pilot. Carbon monoxide and cyanide testing was not performed. Pseudoephedrine an over the counter decongestant drug was present in the blood and urine. Morphine 0.213 (ug/ml, ug/g) was detected in the urine. Morphine was administered to the pilot at Wellmont Holston Valley Medical Center before his death.
TEST AND RESEARCH
Review of the Cessna 210 Owner's Manual states in Chapter III, OPERATING DETAILS on page 3-6 that with gear and flaps down 20-degrees the airplane will stall at 62 mph indicated airspeed.
The United States Government Flight Information U.S. Terminal Procedures Southeast (SE) Volume 1 of 4 approach charts found in the airplane wreckage for Kentucky and Tennessee, expired on July 10, 2003.
The wreckage was released to Atlanta Air Recovery, Griffin, Georgia, on March 23, 2004. The Magellan GPS Laser 12 and pilot logbook was released to the son of the flight instructor on March 22, 2004. The pilot logbook was released to the wife of the private pilot on March 16, 2004. The airplane logbooks were released to Phoenix Aviation Managers Inc., on behalf of the registered owner on March 17, 2004.