History of the Flight

On June 5, 1993, at 1133 hours Pacific daylight time, a Lancair 320, N69WD, collided with a Cessna 152, N80203, on final approach about 3/4 of a mile from the approach end of Runway 26, at the Chino Airport, Chino, California. Both airplanes were destroyed. The certificated commercial pilot, the sole occupant of the Lancair 320, received fatal injuries; the flight instructor and student pilot aboard the Cessna 152 also received fatal injuries. The Lancair 320 was being operated by the pilot/owner. According to a witness, the Lancair 320 departed Merced, California, about 0930 hours.

The Cessna 152 was being operated by North Orange Aviation, Inc., Chino, California, as a local instructional flight. According to the operator, the Cessna 152 flight originated at the Chino Airport about 1000 hours. Both airplanes were in contact with the Chino Air Traffic Control Tower (ATCT) at the time of the collision. Visual meteorological conditions prevailed at the time.

The Lancair 320 was first noticed on radar by Ontario Terminal Radar TRACON as an unidentified aircraft, 6 miles southwest of the Ontario International Airport, northeast bound at 5,600 feet mean sea level (MSL). A Southwest Airlines jet had departed the Ontario International Airport and was cleared to climb to 8,000 feet MSL. The Ontario TRACON amended the Southwest Airlines climb clearance to 4,000 feet MSL to avoid a traffic conflict with the Lancair 320. The Ontario TRACON continued to track the Lancair 320.

The sector controller observed the Lancair 320 turn eastbound and start to descend through 5,000 feet MSL. The Lancair descended into Class C airspace without two-way radio communication with the Ontario TRACON, the Air Traffic Control (ATC) facility that provides services for the Ontario International Airport Radar Service Area (ARSA). The sector controller made an alphanumeric entry on the radar display to tag the Lancair 320 as an ARSA violator. This tag was observed on other radar displays including the Chino ATCT Bright Radar Indicator Tower Equipment (BRITE).

At 1127 hours, the Lancair 320 was five miles northeast of the Chino Airport. The Ontario TRACON contacted the Chino ATCT to see if the aircraft was in radio contact with the tower. The Chino ATCT personnel indicated the pilot was not in contact with the tower.

At 1131 hours, the Lancair 320 pilot contacted the Brackett ATCT located about 12 miles northwest of the Chino Airport and indicated he was west of the Brackett Airport and requested to land. The local controller could not see the Lancair 320 and questioned the pilot as to what landmarks he could see. The Lancair 320 pilot stated he could see Runway 21 and Runway 26.

At 1132 hours, the Brackett ATCT flight data controller contacted the Chino ATCT and asked if an unknown aircraft was in sight or in radio contact with the Lancair 320. The Chino ATCT local controller responded that he saw the Lancair 320, but was not in radio contact with the airplane. The Brackett ATCT local controller instructed the Lancair 320 pilot to contact Chino ATCT.

The Lancair 320 was observed by Chino ATCT personnel and numerous other witnesses at about 500 feet above ground level flying westbound north of the airport. The witnesses reported the Lancair was traveling at a high rate of speed for the traffic pattern. The Lancair 320 turned cross wind and downwind behind the Cessna 152 and passed another airplane on the downwind leg of the traffic pattern.

At 1131:53 hours, the Cessna 152, N80203, pilot reported turning from the downwind leg to the base leg in the traffic pattern. The Cessna 152 was cleared by the local controller for a touch and go maneuver on Runway 26. A Cessna 172 was on the instrument landing system (ILS) runway 26 final approach course about 3 miles from the airport. The local controller advised the Cessna 172 of the Cessna 152 traffic two miles ahead. The Cessna 172 pilot indicated that he was "in the clouds" and unable to see the Cessna 152.

At 1132:38 hours, the Lancair 320 pilot contacted the Chino ATCT. At 1132:41 hours, the local controller instructed the Lancair 320 pilot that he was number three in the pattern and to follow a Cessna on a three mile final. The Cessna 172, which the Lancair 320 was instructed to follow, had reported to the local controller 8 seconds earlier that they were "in the clouds."

The local controller did not verify with the Cessna 172 that they were in visual meteorological conditions before instructing the Lancair 320 pilot he was number 3 to land behind the Cessna 172. According to radar data, the Lancair 320 was heading southwest in a left turn. The Lancair 320 was observed by the local controller to enter a left downwind for the runway.

At 1132:47 hours, the Lancair 320 pilot stated, "I have the Cessna, I'm going outside him."

At 1133:18 hours, the Chino ATCT local controller advised the Cessna 172 on the ILS Runway 26 approach of the Cessna 152 about 1.5 miles ahead. At 1133:26 hours, the local controller observed the Lancair collide with the tail of the Cessna 152 about 3/4 of a mile from the approach end of Runway 26. The Cessna 152 was established on the final approach course.

Meteorological Information

The Chino Airport is the closest official weather observation station. At 1135 hours, a special surface observation was reporting in part: Sky condition and ceiling, 1,500 feet broken, 3,000 feet overcast; visibility, 5 statute miles with rain and fog; winds, 240 degrees at 5 knots; altimeter, 29.80 in Hg.

Wreckage Documentation

The Cessna 152 collided with the asphalt surface of Remington Road which is aligned with Runway 26's extended centerline. The airplane's fuselage came to rest, inverted, on the road. The empennage was bent to the right. The elevator and rudder control cables were severed. The propeller, vertical and horizontal stabilizers were separated from the fuselage.

The Cessna 152 propeller was found a few feet forward of the airplane's fuselage. The propeller exhibited chordwise scoring on the cambered side and forward bending. The vertical stabilizer was found in a field about 75 feet north of Remington Road and about 230 feet east of the Cessna 152 fuselage. The rudder remained attached to the vertical stabilizer. The anti-collision light lens was broken and pieces were found on Remington Road abeam the vertical stabilizer. The anti- collision light bulb was destroyed and there was no filament evidence found to determine whether it was operating. The anti-collision light switch was found in the "ON" position.

The Cessna 152 horizontal stabilizer and elevator was found about 100 feet north of the airplane's fuselage. Four propeller slashes were found in the horizontal stabilizer, two propeller slashes were found in the aft end of the airplanes empennage and one propeller slash was found in the vertical stabilizer.

The Lancair 320 came to rest in a field about 400 feet north of Remington Road on an approximate 325 degree magnetic bearing from the Cessna 152 wreckage. The nose of the airplane was destroyed by impact with the ground. A ground scar was found about 5 feet southeast of the airplane's point of rest on the 325 degree bearing. The ground scar was about 7 feet long, 3 feet wide and 8 inches deep.

The Lancair 320 propeller exhibited chordwise scoring and leading edge nicks and gouges. The size of the leading edge gouges was consistent with the diameter of the Cessna 152 severed control cables. The Lancair 320 transponder was found switched to the "ALT" position squawking code "1200."

Medical and Pathological Information

Post mortem examinations were conducted by the San Berdardino County Coroner's Office on June 8, 1993, with specimens retained for toxicological examination. According to the Coroner's report, the cause of death for all the pilots was attributed to multiple injuries.

Toxicological testing was completed by the FAA's Civil Aeromedical Institute and the San Bernardino County Coroner's Office. The results of the toxicological analysis for the pilots revealed negative results for routine drug and alcohol tests.

Additional Information

ATC Procedures

The prescribed ATC procedures and phraseology for use by personnel providing ATC services are contained in the FAA Air Traffic Control Handbook 7110.65G. The handbook lists the duty priority and states, in part, "Give first priority to separating aircraft and issuing safety alerts...." Additionally, the handbook states, in part, "primary purpose of the ATC system is to prevent a collision between aircraft operating in the system...."

Wreckage Release

Both aircraft wreckages were released to representatives of the owners on June 28, 1993.

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