IAD96LA062
IAD96LA062

On April 14, 1996, at 1312 eastern daylight time, a Cessna 182, N1356S, ran off the end of runway 36 after landing at Hummel Field, in Saluda, Virginia. The airplane sustained substantial damage when it nosed over in the grass, and came to rest inverted. The certificated private pilot and the two passengers reported minor injuries. Visual meteorological conditions prevailed at the time of the accident, no flight plan was filed. The flight was conducted under 14 CFR 91, and originated in Williamsburg, Virginia, at about 1230.

The pilot reported that when he approached runway 36 (2,261 feet long), he "...intentionally came in a little high due to...the auto traffic that runs perpendicular to runway 36... ." The pilot explained that as the airplane descended through about 200 feet, he extended the flaps to "...approximately 30-35 degrees to give me a higher sink rate. When I landed and applied brakes, my plane pulled hard left and I experienced only partial braking." He added that "...my touchdown speed was between 65 and 70 knots."

The Cessna Pilot's Operating Handbook (POH) for the Cessna 182 states: "For a short field landing, make a power-off approach at 60 KIAS (knots indicated airspeed) with 40 degrees of flaps and land on the main wheels first." According to the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) Flight Training Handbook, "...to land within a short field or a confined area, the pilot must have precise, positive control of the rate of descent and airspeed to produce an approach that will clear any obstacles, result in little or no floating during the roundout, and permit the airplane to be stopped in the shortest possible distance." The Flight Training Handbook further stated "...the approach speed should be no higher than...[the manufacturer's recommended approach speed]...An excessive amount of airspeed could result in touchdown too far from the runway threshold or an after landing roll that exceeds the available landing area." Excerpts from the Cessna POH and the FAA Flight Training Handbook are appended.

The FAA Inspector reported that he "...found the flap indicator and flaps at approximately 50% down [20 degrees] when I inspected the aircraft following the accident. To my knowledge, no one had tampered with the flaps or anything else on the aircraft before we arrived at Hummel Airport." The FAA Airworthiness Inspector reported that he "...checked both brakes for proper operation and condition, and no faults were found that could have led to a runway end excursion." The FAA Airworthiness Inspector added that he "...Interviewed [the mechanic], who maintains this aircraft at the Williamsburg (JGG) airport, and he also stated that he has been unable to find anything mechanically wrong with the brakes on this aircraft. He also never noticed any discrepancies with the brakes, while taxiing the aircraft, after completion of maintenance."

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