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On February 16, 1994, approximately 0936 hours mountain standard time (MST), a Cessna T210N II, N5182Y, registered to Terry Hoard, operated by H & H Aviation, Inc., d/b/a Terry Air, Inc., and being flown by Stephan P. Robison, a certificated commercial pilot, was destroyed during a loss of control and subsequent collision with terrain while executing a forced landing following a power loss during descent. The pilot sustained fatal injuries. Visual meteorological conditions prevailed and an IFR flight plan was in effect. The flight, which was a non publicly scheduled cargo (bank check delivery) flight, was to have been operated in accordance with the requirements set forth in 14CFR135, and originated from Spokane at 0753 hours MST.
At 0926:10 hours and approximately 36 nautical miles (nm) north northwest of the Boise airport the pilot of N5182Y contacted Boise approach control reporting "out of 9.5 for 7.5."
At 0932:05 hours approximately 22 nm north northwest of the Boise airport (9 nm northeast of the Emmett airport) the pilot radioed "I've got some engine problems" and inquired if the Payette airport nearby was his closest airport. The controller stated that Emmett was in the pilot's one-two o'clock position about 8 miles. The aircraft then began a right turn toward Emmett. During the next minute the pilot and controller discussed the location of the Emmett airport and the pilot radioed that "we're going to have to make a landing." At 0933:17 hours the controller inquired "are you still under power" and the pilot responded "Affirmative, just slight power sir." At 0934:28 hours the aircraft was approximately 5 nm north northeast of the Emmett Airport descending through 4300 feet MSL (mean sea level) and 17 seconds later the pilot radioed "have it in sight and I don't believe I'm gonna make it there" (refer to ATTACHMENTS CT-I [communication transcription] and RD-I [radar data]). The magnetic bearing from the last radar target to the ground impact site was plotted as approximately 250 degrees. A number of witnesses located in the vicinity of the accident site reported observing the aircraft flying low and heading in a west to northwesterly direction. The witnesses reported that when the landing gear were extended, the plane "nose dived into the field," "appeared to stall and rolled to (the) left and dropped," and "went down at a 45 degree angle" (refer to statements of Thomas, Hyde, Goodrum and Klingback).
The Gem County Sheriff's Office was notified of the accident at 0936 hours and arrived on site at 0940 hours. A small fire was observed in the vicinity of the left wingtip which was extinguished shortly after the accident. Fuel was observed leaking from the leading edge midspan area of the right wing (refer to photographs 1 through 4). Two 5 gallon plastic containers were subsequently placed beneath the leak. The containers were filled to within a few inches of their tops with an absorbent material. Sheriff Mark John reported to Mr. Joseph Hutterer (refer to Participant Status Sheet) that he was "at the site just a few minutes after impact while the fuel was flowing" and that "he estimated that the leakage lasted 8 to 10 minutes, 15 minutes maximum" (refer to attached letter of Joseph Hutterer of March 9, 1994).
The flight times entered within the flight time matrix in this report were based upon compilations from three logbooks recovered at the accident site. The first logbook was opened with an instructional flight on July 17, 1986, and the last flight documented in the third (consecutive) logbook was entered on February 12, 1994. Flight times following the February 12th entry were not documented. Pilot Robison had logged a total of 2,782 hours of which 95 hours (all pilot in command) were in the Cessna 210. He began flying with H & H Aviation on November 29, 1993, and logged a total of 23 hours in the Cessna 210 with the company. His last FAR Part 135 checkride was accomplished in a Cessna 401 while flying with Spokane Airways on July 27, 1993. There was no record of his receiving a Part 135 checkride in the Cessna 210 within the year previous to the accident.
The aircraft was equipped with two, 45-gallon integral fuel cells (one per wing). The usable fuel per cell was 44.5 gallons. Additionally, there was a 14 gallon auxiliary tip tank on each wing. However, the operator indicated that these tanks were not used. Company computer records showed that a tire change was accomplished on February 14th (Monday) at a tach time of 1825.3 hours. Fuel records maintained by Western Aircraft, Inc. showed that the aircraft was subsequently topped off on this date with the addition of 47.3 gallons of 100 low lead aviation fuel. The tach time at the accident was observed to be 1835.7 hours. The total elapsed tach time was 10.4 hours. According to air logs found at the accident site, the aircraft was flown on the evening of the 14th from Boise to Spokane, departing at 1920 hours (MST) and arriving at 2115 hours (MST) respectively (1.92 hours elapsed time). The following morning (15th) the aircraft was flown from Spokane back to Boise, departing 0820 hours (MST) and arriving at 1010 hours (MST) respectively (1.83 hours elapsed time). There was no evidence the aircraft was fueled at Spokane during its stay. The aircraft then remained at Boise rather than continuing its eastbound cargo run and, according to fuel records maintained by Western Aircraft, Inc., the aircraft was subsequently topped off with the addition of 64.7 gallons of 100 low lead aviation fuel. The fueling was accomplished at approximately 0930 hours MST and there was no evidence of the aircraft being fueled thereafter. The aircraft had been originally scheduled for use on a check flight sometime after its arrival at Boise on the 15th and prior to its departure to Spokane that evening, however, this flight was cancelled. It could not be determined whether the aircraft was flown for any other purpose during this time frame.
The aircraft was then flown on the evening of the 15th from Boise to Spokane, departing at 1920 hours (MST) and arriving at an estimated time of 2115 hours (MST) respectively (1.92 hours elapsed time). The following morning (16th) the aircraft departed Spokane at 0753 hours (MST) and crashed at approximately 0936 hours MST (1.72 hours elapsed time). The total elapsed trip log flight time was approximately 7.39 hours. The unaccounted flight time was 10.4 hours minus 7.4 hours (3 hours). It could not be determined when this 3 hours was expended nor who the pilot was at the time of flight.
Winds (true) in the southwestern section of Idaho near the time of the accident were generally out of the east as documented at the following surface reporting stations:
Boise: 0950 hours 100 deg @ 14 knots Mountain Home AFB: 0955 hours 120 deg @ 16 knots gusts: 23 knots Caldwell: 0935 hours 110 deg @ 10 knots
WRECKAGE AND IMPACT INFORMATION
The aircraft was first observed in an relatively level agricultural field. The latitude and longitude of the site was 43 degrees 54.19 minutes North and 116 degrees 30.33 minutes West, and the elevation of the site was approximately 2,450 feet MSL (refer to CHART II and photograph 5). The first evidence of initial ground impact was a cut in the soil. A second ground impact site approximately 35 feet beyond was observed. The main wreckage was observed 90 beyond the second ground impact site and the magnetic bearing from the initial ground impact site, through the second and to the aircraft's final resting place was 270 degrees (refer to photograph 6). Both wings remained attached to the fuselage with the left wing being partially broken at the root area. The empennage was separated circumferentially just forward of the vertical stabilizer and remained attached to the fuselage only through control cables and electrical wires (refer to photographs 7 & 8).
The initial ground impact scar was consistent with an impression from the left wingtip's leading edge impacting in an extreme left wing down attitude. A small fragment of red navigation lens was found within the soil at this impact site (refer to photograph 9). Additional fragments of red navigation lens were observed in a pattern extending from the initial ground impact and beyond on a magnetic bearing of 250 degrees. The aircraft's left wing exhibited minimal leading edge damage until a point forward and several feet outboard of the aileron/flap seam. From there outboard, the left wing was deformed upward and aft and the outboard tip section, containing the auxiliary (tip) fuel tank, was separated (refer to photograph 10). There was evidence of a small fire in the tip area at the aircraft's final resting place. The left main fuel tank displayed no evidence of any breach. The aircraft's right wing exhibited upward and aft bending deformation at a point forward of the aileron/flap seam. The outboard tip section, containing the auxiliary (tip) fuel tank, remained attached. There was evidence of a breach of the right main fuel cell with a small amount of fuel spillage on the ground beneath the wing's low point. No pooling of fuel or extensive fuel soaking of the ground was detected in this area. There was no evidence of fire in this area (refer to the two five-gallon plastic buckets in photograph 11). The engine remained attached to the fuselage and displayed an approximate 30 to 45 degree upwards crush angle (refer to photograph 12). The three blade propeller was observed to be attached to the engine crankshaft. All three blades were straight with little leading edge nicking or chordwise scratching (refer to photograph 13). The fuel selector lever was observed to be positioned on the left main fuel tank. The left fuel tank gauge indicator needle was pegged full left (below the red line) while the right fuel tank gauge indicator needle showed approximately 140 pounds of fuel (refer to photograph 14). The left main fuel tank was accessed by cutting open a hole in the top of the wing. A total of approximately one half gallon of blue aviation fuel was observed in the forward, outboard corner of the tank (low point). The fuel was tested with water sensitive paste and less than thimble full of water was identified (refer to photograph 15). No fuel was found within the right fuel tank. The fuel flow divider atop the engine was opened and found to contain fuel. It was tested for water with negative results. The gascolator was removed and found to contain approximately four ounces of blue fuel, no water, and only a small amount of corrosion. The filter screen was clear. Continuity between the engine controls (throttle, mixture and propeller) and the engine was established on site. The flap jackscrew was observed to be positioned consistent with an approximate 5 degree flap extension, and the landing gear were extended.
MEDICAL AND PATHOLOGICAL INFORMATION
Post mortem examination of pilot Robison was conducted by Frank A. Roberts, M.D., at Saint Alphonsus Regional Medical Facility, Boise, Idaho, on February 16, 1994. There was no reported evidence of any preimpact pilot impairment. Additionally, tissue and fluid samples were submitted for toxicological examination and all results were negative (refer to attached report).
TESTS AND RESEARCH
The engine was shipped to Teledyne/Continental Motors in Mobile, Alabama, and test run on May 11, 1994. The engine operated without major discrepancy (refer to report of FAA Inspector John V. Moeller, and May 16th letter of Joseph Hutterer). Subsequent to the aircraft's removal from the accident site several additional examinations were conducted under the control of FAA Inspector Chuck Knipple as follows:
1)The induction air filter was examined and found to be free obstructions.
2) Approximately 6 ounces of fuel was drained from the left reservoir tank.
3) Approximately 32 ounces of fuel was drained from the right reservoir tank.
4) Wing root fuel lines were checked for continuity and blockage.
5) The right wing was positioned at an approximate 20 degree wing down attitude and two gallons of water was added to the fuel tank. The water was observed to stop draining after 8 minutes and
20 seconds (refer to letter of Mr. Joseph A. Hutterer). Mr. Hutterer reported that a similar test conducted at Cessna utilizing gasoline resulted in a flow rate approximately 7% faster than water.
Additionally, Inspector Knipple examined the fuel selector to verify that the valve was in the left tank position coincident with the selector. He also determined that continuity existed between the selector lever and the valve and the valve could be positioned to the right tank.
On site examination was conducted on February 15th and the wreckage was conditionally released to Western Aircraft, Inc. for the purposes of recovery to the Boise Airport late on the afternoon of the 15th. The wreckage was subjected to a heavy rainstorm as the on site investigation was being completed. The airframe, exclusive of the engine and associated logs, records and paperwork from the site, was released to Frontier Aviation Adjustors on March 15th. The engine was returned to Boise subsequent to its test run and, along with the remaining records, was released on June 15, 1994 (refer to attached NTSB Form 6120.15).