NTSB Identification: CHI93FA109.
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Accident occurred Thursday, March 11, 1993 in SAINT LOUIS, MO
Probable Cause Approval Date: 08/18/1994
Aircraft: MCDONNELL DOUGLAS DC-9-31, registration: N978Z
Injuries: 2 Uninjured.

NTSB investigators either traveled in support of this investigation or conducted a significant amount of investigative work without any travel, and used data obtained from various sources to prepare this aircraft accident report.

DURING THE 1ST OFFICER'S INITIAL TRAINING, THE CAPT ELECTED TO DEMONSTRATE 'A MORE EFFICIENT REVERSING TECHNIQUE' USING A TOUCH-AND-GO. THE AIRPLANE DEPARTED THE LEFT SIDE OF THE RUNWAY AT THE 4,000-FT MARKER DRAGGING THE LEFT WING AND LOWER LEFT REVERSER BUCKET. IT THEN CONTINUED FOR 2,000 FT BEFORE COMING TO REST. EVIDENCE INDICATED THAT NEITHER THRUST REVERSER WAS STOWED, AND THAT THE FLAPS WERE AT FULL DEPLOYMENT. MCDONNELL DOUGLAS LETTER #4 INDICATES THAT REVERSER BUCKETS WILL NOT STOW WITH EPR ABOVE APPROX 1.2. THE DFDR SHOWED NO INDICATION THAT THE AIRPLANE COMPLETELY LIFTED OFF THE GROUND ONCE THE INITIAL LANDING WAS MADE, AND IT INDICATED A CONSTANT DECAY OF AIRSPEED FROM THE INITIAL TOUCHDOWN UNTIL THE AIRPLANE STOPPED. THERE WAS A RIGHT CROSSWIND AT THE TIME OF THE ACCIDENT. THERE WAS NO PHYSICAL EVIDENCE THAT THE NOSE WHEEL WAS IN CONTACT WITH THE RUNWAY WHEN DIRECTIONAL CONTROL WAS LOST. THE AIRPLANE FLIGHT MANUAL INDICATES THAT INCREASING AMOUNTS OF REVERSE THRUST SIGNIFICANTLY REDUCES RUDDER EFFECTIVENESS.

The National Transportation Safety Board determines the probable cause(s) of this accident to be:

THE CAPTAIN'S IMPROPER USE OF THRUST REVERSERS AND EXCESSIVE USE OF ENGINE POWER. FACTORS WHICH CONTRIBUTED TO THE ACCIDENT WERE: THE CROSSWIND AND THE FIRST OFFICER'S FAILURE TO RAISE THE FLAPS.

Full narrative available

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